How Can We Defy Aging?Many anti-aging studies are being conducted nowadays with the hope of discovering new methods of finding out which substances can halt the progress of aging in the body. Recently one study has shown that a vitamin, nicotinamide riboside, can stop the aging process in body organs.Nicotinamide riboside is a substance that has the potential of rejuvenating stem cells, permitting higher regeneration processes in aged mice.Nicotinamide riboside (NR) is pretty robust. It has already been proven in several experiences to be effective in boosting metabolism. And now, researchers at EPFL’s Laboratory of Integrated Physiology (LISP has reported about the positive effects of this vitamin on stem cells such as restoration.This vitamin has recently been studied in mice. As mice age, the regenerative ability of organs such as the liver and kidneys and some muscle groups diminishes. Their capability to repair cells following damage can also be affected. This results in some of the problems which are typical of getting older.Nicotinamide and AgingThe researchers wanted to appreciate how regeneration deteriorated with age. To do so, they determined the molecular chain that regulates how mitochondria, known as the “powerhouse” of the cell, can perform and how they are altered by age. The function that mitochondria play in metabolism has already been amply established, however, according to the researchers they were able to show for the first time that their ability to function properly was important for stem cells”.Under average conditions, these stem cells reacting to indicators sent by the body regenerate damaged organs by producing new distinctive cells. The lead author added, “We demonstrated that fatigue in stem cells was one of the main causes of poor regeneration or even degeneration in certain tissues or organs”.Because of this, the researchers desired to “revitalize” stem cells in the muscle tissues of aged mice. And so they did by means of concentrating on the molecules that support the mitochondria to function adequately. According to them, they “gave nicotinamide riboside to 2-year-old mice, which is an advanced age for them. This substance, which is close to vitamin B3, is a precursor of NAD+, a molecule that plays a key role in mitochondrial activity. And our results are extremely promising: muscular regeneration is much better in mice that received NR, and they lived longer than the mice that didn’t get it”.Other previous studies have showed a comparable effect on stem cells of the brain and epidermis. According to the lead author, “This work could have very important implications in the field of regenerative medicine. We are not talking about introducing foreign substances into the body but rather restoring the body’s ability to repair itself with a product that can be taken with food.”Up to now, no negative results have been found using NR, even at excessive doses. However caution should be observed because it seems to boost the functioning of all cells, which would comprise the abnormal ones. More studies are required.

Source: Nicotinamide Can Stop Aging of Organs, Study Shows – Doctor Tipster

Elysium isn’t the only pterostilbene vendor. In fact, ChromaDex also offers pterostilbene for supplements separately from Niagen. How excited should we be about all this? If I were a middle-aged mouse, I’d be ready to spend some of the nickels and dimes I’d dragged off the sidewalk to try NR supplements. Even before Sinclair’s paper, researchers had shown in 2012 that when given doses of NR, mice on high-fat diets gained 60 percent less weight than they did on the same diets without NR. Further, none of

Source: Beyond Resveratrol: The Anti-Aging NAD Fad – Scientific American Blog Network

Much of the book is devoted to explaining why we can’t turn to the experts for guidance, or at least, why we should expect no more from them than from parents or grandparents. As one of the world’s leading developmental psychologists, Gopnik is in a position to state, with authority, that no one knows what’s best when it comes to raising kids. That goes for co-sleeping as well as for screen time and making your kids do homework or take music lessons. Not that there aren’t good reasons for you to choose one course of action for your child, in the context of your situation. But science isn’t going to validate your decision for you.

Source: Alison Gopnik’s New Book Talks Of Science And Parenting : 13.7: Cosmos And Culture : NPR

The other clowns in the news need to both defeated by a libertarian when even the church is publishing that they both suck!

Catholics who can’t in good conscience vote for either major presidential candidate are well within their rights to pick a third option, says Bishop James Conley of Lincoln, Nebraska.

Source: Bishop Conley: You actually don’t have to vote for either :: Catholic News Agency (CNA)

Two officers were killed and a third was injured responding to a reported disturbance at a residence in Palm Springs a city in the desert in California.

Police said Felix fired through a closed door without provocation as Palm Springs officers attempted to resolve a domestic disturbance call Saturday.

Two officers — one a new mother, the other close to retirement — were killed. A third officer was injured but expected to recover.

Felix is eligible for the death penalty, and prosecutors will make a decision in the next few weeks, District Attorney Mike Hestrin said at a news conference Sunday.

“I will tell you that I consider a brutal murder of a police officer to be a very heinous crime,” Hestrin said. “So I’ll leave it at that.”

Twelve hours after the shooting, Felix surrendered to a SWAT team from the Riverside County Sheriff’s Department.

The suspect reportedly had told his father moments before the shooting that he wanted to kill police officers.

Authorities said Sunday they would not address any of Felix’s criminal history and confirmed only a few details of the shooting, citing an active investigation.

Felix was wearing “soft, concealable body armor” and had several high-capacity gun magazines when he was captured early Sunday morning, Chief Deputy Ray Wood said at the press conference. He was not armed with a weapon when he was taken into custody, Wood said.

Wood said sheriff’s deputies “used a number of tools at our disposal” to try to draw Felix out during the standoff, including searching the house with a remote-controlled robot and then deploying tear gas.

“We attempted for several hours. There were many, many attempts to establish communication with him,” Wood said. “There was no mistaking that we were present.”

The officers killed were Lesley Zerebny, 27, and Jose Gilbert “Gil” Vega, 63.

Zerebny had recently returned from maternity leave and was the mother of a 4-month-old. She was married to a Riverside County sheriff’s deputy. A SWAT team from her husband’s department participated in efforts to capture the suspect and ultimately did so after an exchange of gunfire early Sunday morning, according to a statement from the sheriff’s department.

Vega, a 35-year veteran, was scheduled to retire in December. He had chosen to work overtime Saturday.

They were the first Palm Springs police officers to die in the line of duty since 1962, according to the Palm Springs Desert News.

“Today Palm Springs lost two brave officers,” Reyes said. “They go out every day with their boots on the ground. They gave their all for you.

” . . . I am awake in a nightmare right now. … If ever there was a time to pray for the Palm Springs police department, it is now.”

The third officer who was injured was expected to be released from the hospital Sunday, police said.

Reyes choked back tears throughout a a news conference Saturday as he recounted the domestic disturbance call his officers had tried to resolve.

The officers were called to the home just after an occupant had rushed across the street in a panic, telling a neighbor that his son had a gun and wanted to shoot police. “He came over and asked for help,” neighbor Frances Serrano told reporters.

“He said: ‘Help. I need help. My son is in the house and he’s crazy. He has a gun. He’s ready to shoot all the police.’”

The man walked back to his house and shortly afterward, Serrano said, she heard repeated gunshots “starting with a loud, I mean really loud, bang.”

As officers were attempting to talk to the man behind the door, he “threatened to shoot the officers” through it, Reyes said. Then the man opened fire, gunning down the officers.

Dozens of officers from surrounding jurisdictions responded to an emergency call about 10 minutes after the first one, surrounding the house and sealing off a four-block perimeter, uncertain as to the whereabouts of the shooter and warning residents to stay inside.

“There were police everywhere,” Serrano told reporters. “I looked out the window and saw police with rifles.”

Juan Graciano, 67, who lives a block away, told the Los Angeles Times he saw police attempting to revive Zerebny. “I saw a woman officer who had been laid down in the trunk of a police cruiser. I watched as they picked her up and laid her down on the street and began administering CPR.”

Another neighbor told reporters of hearing more rounds of gunfire that continued for up to 20 minutes. “We stayed indoors,” Georgie Eden told the Times. “It was kind of, pretty scary.”

The Palm Springs Desert Sun described the suspect as a “known gang member,” who spent four years in prison for a 2009 attempted murder plot. He was also arrested in 2013, the paper said, after fighting with police at the same home where Saturday’s shooting took place.

Authorities on Sunday did not address the suspect’s criminal history or detail the type of weapon or weapons used.

“At this point of time it is very premature for us to be talking about the all the details of the investigation,” said Wood said. “Right now it is still way early. We are still in the front end of the investigation.”

The Riverside County Sheriff’s Department is investigating the shooting.

The Palm Springs incident also comes on the heels of other high-profile police officer deaths. Last week, a Los Angeles County Sheriff’s sergeant was shot and killed while responding to a burglary call in Lancaster, Calif. In July, five police officers in Dallas were killed and seven others were wounded by a lone gunman.

According to the National Law Enforcement Officers Memorial Fund, 67 law enforcement officers have died in the line of duty this year as of July 20, an increase over the 62 officers killed in the same period last year. The nonprofit group’s mid-year report noted a troubling increase in some of those deaths occurring in “ambush” attacks.

This post has been updated.

Read more:

Two officers — one a new mother, another close to retiring — dead after Palm Springs shooting

‘Unprovoked, violent, intentional act’: Video shows car plowing into Phoenix police officers

Mother of three survives car crash — only to be gunned down by the other driver, police say

Source: Man who killed two Palm Springs officers had body armor and gun magazines, officials say – The Washington Post

Methionine- Restricted Diet… Who needs it?By Brenda Davis | Articles, Diet and Disease, General Nutrition | 27 November 2015image_print Methionine is an essential amino acid — one of the building blocks of protein that cannot be produced by the human body so must come from our food. It is one of two sulfur-containing amino acids (the other is cysteine). Methionine is an intermediary in the synthesis of cysteine, carnitine, taurine, and other compounds. It protects liver cells, and helps to prevent lipid peroxidation, and possibly atherosclerosis and elevated cholesterol. Although methionine is essential to human life, some people benefit by limiting, but not eliminating methionine in their diets. For such individuals a methionine-restricted diet may be advised. Should I be on a methionine-restricted diet?Some individuals need to restrict methionine due to inherited disorders that affect methionine metabolism. There is growing interest in methionine restricted diets for those who are unaffected by these genetic metabolic disorders. Evidence suggests that such diets could enhance longevity and help to prevent or treat certain chronic health conditions. The most common indications for a methionine-restricted diet are: i) MTHFR variants. MTHFR gene mutations can lead to elevated homocysteine. Methionine restriction is commonly recommended to help reduce homocysteine accumulation. ii) Cancer. While human studies are sparse, there is some evidence that cancer cells grow less robustly, and sometimes undergo apoptosis (cell death) when deprived of methionine. iii) Depression. High methionine intakes can elevate homocysteine levels and risk of depression. iv) Lifespan extension. Low methionine diets increase metabolic flexibility and overall insulin sensitivity and improve lipid metabolism while decreasing systemic inflammation. v) Insulin resistance. Methionine restriction has been shown to reduce adiposity and improve insulin sensitivity. vi) Homocystinuria. This inherited disorder of metabolism often requires a low methionine diet. If methionine-restriction may help kill cancer cells and increase longevity, shouldn’t everyone be on a methionine-restricted diet?We don’t know for sure, but it is an option for those who are interested in employing a novel dietary strategy for disease risk reduction. While severe methionine restriction is rarely advised, a moderate methionine restriction may be beneficial. The most concentrated methionine sources are animal products such as meat, poultry and fish. You will see from the table below that the eating pattern that is lowest in methionine is a purely plant-based diet or vegan diet. Other vegetarian or near-vegetarian diets are lower in methionine than omnivores diets, but not as low as vegan diets. For most people, simply eating a plant-based diet is likely sufficient for reducing methionine intake. Those with metabolic disorders or other conditions that may warrant methionine restriction can further restrict methionine by limiting high methionine plant-based foods. If a methionine restricted diet is indicated for me, how much methionine should I be eating each day?The RDA (recommended dietary allowance) for methionine + cysteine (adults 19 yrs+) is 19 mg/kg/day, while the EAR (estimated average requirement) is 15 mg/kg/day. People should not dip too much below these levels as they represent the lower end of what is needed for human health. Methionine-restricted diets allow 800-1200 mg methionine per day for most adults. For methionine alone, 15 mg/kg is thought to be a reasonable lower limit. So, if a therapeutic, methionine-restricted diet is indicated for you, multiply your healthy body weight by 15 to find a level of methionine intake that is appropriate. Let’s say your healthy body weight is 60 kg, you would need 900 mg methionine per day. Are there any downsides to severely restricting methionine?Absolutely. There is some evidence that a lack of methionine could reduce levels of S-Adenosylmethionine or SAM-e increasing risk of depression. A lack of methionine has also been linked to senile graying of hair. When you restrict methionine you are naturally restricting protein, at least to some degree. Ensuring sufficient protein is essential to health. Protein is necessary for building, strengthening and repairing body tissues, for making antibodies, hormones, enzymes and other compounds that are critical to every body process. A lack of protein can result in muscle loss, increased risk of bone fractures and undesirable changes in hair and skin. Seniors tend to absorb protein less efficiently, so they may need to consume 15-25% more protein than other adults in order to absorb the same amount. So while methionine restriction can be beneficial, it is important that we meet our needs for methionine, and for protein. METHIONINE IN COMMON FOODS(SOURCE: THE USDA NUTRIENT DATABASE RELEASE 28) Methionine (mg/serving)0-50 mg51-100 mg101-150 mg151-200 mg201-250 mg251-300 mg

Source: Methionine- Restricted Diet… Who needs it? | Brenda Davis R.D.

Mechanisms and methods of methonine restriction

Life Extension Benefits of Methionine Restriction

by Ben Best

CONTENTS: LINKS TO SECTIONS BY TOPIC

  1. METHIONINE BASICS
  2. METHIONINE RESTRICTION EFFECTS
  3. METHIONINE RESTRICTION FOOD DATA
  4. METHIONINE RESTRICTION DIET
HEART MUSCLE METHIONINE
[HEART MUSCLE METHIONINE]

I. METHIONINE BASICS

Methionine is the only essential amino acid containing sulfur. Methionine is the precursor of the other sulfur-containing amino acids: cysteine, taurine, homocysteine, and cystathione. Methionine is essential for the synthesis of proteins and many other biomoleules required for survival. Rats fed a diet without methionine develop fatty liver disease which can be corrected by methionine supplements [DIGESTIVE DISEASES AND SCIENCES; Oz,HS; 53(3):767-776 (2008)]. Dietary methionine is essential for DNA methylation. Reduced DNA methylation results in genetic instability, aberrant gene expression, and increased cancer.

The above paragraph is the first paragraph from the section on methionine in my article dealing with the Methionine Cycle. Material in that article is useful background for the information below. Note, however, that there is an inverse correlation between lifespan and the methionine content of protein in the heart muscle of eight mammalian species [MECHANISMS OF AGEING AND DEVELOPMENT; Ruiz,MC; 126(10):1106-1114 (2005)]. The sulfur-containing amino acids methionine and cysteine are the most readily oxidized of any of the amino acids — both as free amino acids or in proteins. Methionine is oxidized to methionine sulfoxide, but methionine sulfoxide reductases enzymatically regenerate methionine [BIOPHYSICA ET BIOCHEMICA ACTA; Lee,BC; 1790 (11): 1471-1477 (2009)].

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II. METHIONINE RESTRICTION EFFECTS

Substantial evidence indicates that as much as half of the life-extension benefits of CRAN (Calorie Restriction with Adequate Nutrition) are due to restriction of the single amino acid methionine. In a study of rats given 20% the dietary methionine of control rats, mean lifespan increased 42% and maximum lifespan increased 44% [THE FASEB JOURNAL;Richie,JP; 8(15):1302-1307 (1994)]. Blood glutathione levels were 81% higher in the methionine-restricted rats at maturity, and 164% higher in old age. In other studies, methionine-restricted rats showed greater insulin sensitivity and reduced fat deposition [AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSIOLOGY; Hasek,BE; 299:R728-R739 (2010) and AGING CELL; Malloy,VL; 5(4):305-314 (2006)].

An experiment on mice given 35% the methionine of controls showed only a 7% increase in median life span [JOURNALS OF GERONTOLOGY; Sun,L; 64(7):711-722 (2009)]. Another mouse study showed lowered serum insulin, IGF−1, glucose, and thyroid hormone for methionine at one-third the normal intake. There was significant mouse mortality for methionine less than one-third normal intake, but with one-third intake of methionine maximum lifespan was significantly increased [AGING CELL; Miller,RA; 4(3):119-125 (2005)]. Rats generally show greater longevity benefits from CRAN than mice.

Mitochondrial free radical generation is believed by many biogerontologists to be a significant contributor to aging damage. Rats given 20% the dietary methionine of control rats show significantly decreased free radical generation from complex I and complex III of liver mitochondria as well as from complex I of heart mitochondria — associated with reduced oxidative damage to mitochondrial DNA and protein [THE FASEB JOURNAL;Sanz,A; 20(8):1064-1073 (2006)]. These results are comparable to the reduced mitochondrial free radical generation seen in CRAN rats [ENDOCRINOLOGY; Gredilla,R; 146(9):3713-3717 (2005)]. Rats given 60% rather than 20% of the methionine of control rats showed nearly the same amount of reduced mitochondrial free radical generation and damage [BIOCHEMICA ET BIOPHYSICA ACTA; Lopez-Torres,M; 1780(11):1337-1347 (2008)]. Body weight was not reduced with 60% dietary methionine, leading to the conclusion that such reduction would not result in reduced growth in children [REJUVENATION RESEARCH; Caro,P; 12(6):421-434 (2009)]. It was concluded that methionine restriction is the sole reason for reduced mitochondrial free radical generation and damage associated with CRAN [Ibid.] and protein restriction [BIOGERONTOLOGY; Caro,P; 9(3):183-196 (2008)].

Evidence for the suggestion that methionine oxidation plays a significant role in lifespan can be found in the considerable lifespan extension benefits seen in transgenic fruit flies that overexpress a gene for repairing oxidized methionine in protein [PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES (USA); Ruan,H; 99(5):2748 (2002)]. The sulfur-containing amino acids methionine and cyteine are more easily oxidized in proteins than other amino acids [JOURNAL OF PHYSIOLOGY)], which is apparently related to the reduced free radical generation in mitochondria seen in methionine restriction. Both the fruit fly experiment and the methionine restriction experiments indicate a significant impact on lifespan from methionine oxidation.

It has been suggested that glycine supplementation has the same effect as methionine restriction. An experiment with glycine supplementation in rats showed a 30% extension in maximum lifespan [FASEB JOURNAL; Brind,J; 25:528.2 (2011)]. Additionally, three grams of glycine daily has been shown to improve sleep quality in young (average age 31) female Japanese adults [SLEEP AND BIOLOGICAL RHYTHM; Inagawa,K; 4:75-77 (2006)]

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TABLE 1 Lysine, Threonine and Methionine in Food
(milligrams amino acid per gram protein)
Food Sulfur-containing amino acid Lysine Threonine
Nuts,Seeds 46 ± 17 45 ± 14 36 ± 3
Animal foods 38 85 ± 12 44
Cereals 37 ± 5 31 ± 10 32 ± 4
Fruits 27 ± 6 25 ± 12 29 ± 7
Legumes 25 ± 3 64 ± 10 38 ± 3

III. METHIONINE RESTRICTION FOOD DATA

The adjoining table (my Table 1) from [AMERICAN JOURNAL OF CLINICAL NUTRITION; Young,VR; 59(suppl):1203s-1212s (1994)] indicates the essential amino acids most likely to be limited in plant protein foods. Cereal protein contains comparable sulfur-containing amino acids (including methionine) per gram as animal foods, whereas fruit and legume protein contain about 65% as much methionine. Nuts and seeds are particularly high in methionine, on average 20% higher in methionine than animal protein, although the absolute amount of protein in animal foods tends to be higher, which makes total methionine intake generally higher in animal foods. Vegetables are not shown in Table 1, but as described in Table 4 in the AMERICAN JOURNAL OF CLINICAL NUTRITION paper from which Table 1 is taken, vegetables are on average in the 1-2% range for percent protein and fruits are in the 0.5-1% protein range — so neither fruits nor vegetables should be considered serious sources of protein (green peas are an exceptional vegetable with 5.4% protein, and avacado is an exceptional fruit with 2% protein). Cereals are typically 7-13% protein and legumes are typically 20-30% protein (soybeans are exceptionally high in protein even for legumes, being in the range of 35-45% protein).

The dry weight of beef, broccoli, peanuts, and peas is about one-third protein, whereas cereals and fruits are less than 10% dry weight protein. Unlike many other plant proteins, legumes are not particularly low in lysine, and they are close to animal protein in threonine content. Vegetarians attempting to achieve complete protein often combine cereals (which are relatively high in methionine for plant protein) with legumes (which are relatively high in lysine for plant protein).

PHYTIC ACID
[PHYTIC ACID]

Lentils and other beans contain high amounts of phytic acid (phosphate-rich inositol), which can chelate positively-charged multivalent mineral ions (especially iron, zinc, magnesium, and calcium), preventing absorption. Soaking lentils and beans in warm water overnight not only makes them easier to cook, it allows some of the phytates to be soaked-out (and thrown-away with the water). Acidic solution (such as vinegar) better removes the phytates. Cooking also helps destroy phytates.

Although it would be very difficult to determine a diet providing optimum methionine for maximum human lifespan — even on the basis of rat experiments — evidence is convincing that reducing dietary methionine can help extend lifespan. The Table 2, listing milligrams of methionine per 100 grams of food (rather than per gram of protein, as in Table 1), could be helpful. Table values are based on [FOOD VALUES OF PORTIONS COMMONLY USED by Jean Pennington (1989)].

 

TABLE 2 Methionine in Foods
(milligrams/100 grams of food)
Food Methionine
Cheese, parmesan (dry) 971
Skim milk (dry) 907
Tuna (light) 862
Cheese, Swiss (processed) 792
Corned beef 711
Cheese, Cheddar 661
Salmon 631
Cheese, American (processed) 579
Extra lean beef 572
Walnuts, black 479
Egg white 394
Whole boiled egg 392
Pistashio nuts 386
Peanuts 289
Walnuts, Persian (English) 286
Cashew nuts 279
Cheerios 254
Oatmeal 250
Broad (Fava) beans 239
Soybeans 224
Barley 208
Tofu (firm) 202
Grape nuts (cereal) 200
Shredded wheat (cereal) 193
Wheaties (cereal) 168
Rice 167
Almonds 161
Yogurt 155
White beans 146
Black turtle beans 141
Navy beans 131
Kidney (red) beans 130
Chickpeas (garbanzos) 116
Blackeyed peas (cowpeas) 110
Lima beans 100
Macadamia nuts 93
Millet 85
Peas (raw) 82
Adzuki beans 79
Lentils 77
Corn 70
Spaghetti 51
Sweet potato (baked) 42
Mushrooms 40
Avacado 39
Mung beans 35
Broccoli 34
Potato 33
Pinto beans 33
Amaranth 30
Cauliflower 28
Oranges 22
Tomato paste 19
Kale 18
Banana 17
Blueberries 11
Onion 10
Tomato 8
Apple 2
Grapefruit 2
Strawberries 1

 

The absolute methionine content of a food is better evaluated knowing what the water, fat, carbohydrate, fiber, and protein content of that food is. A higher protein content and a lower methionine content is better than having a low methionine content because the food is low in protein and high in water, fat, or carbohydrate. Lima beans and rice are relatively high in both carbohydrate and methionine. Onions and strawberries are low in methionine, but are high in water and low in protein.

The data for Table 3 is taken from [NUTRITIVE VALUE OF FOODS; USDA Bulletin 72 (1981)], but is adjusted to give percent protein by dry weight. Percent water in the food is not related to the other columns. Fiber content is not given, and I suspect that fiber is equated with carbohydrate. I may have made a few errors, and I suspect that the data contains a few errors (garbage-in, garbage-out). But for the most part I think the data is good, my transcription is accurate, and my calculations are correct.

 

TABLE 3 Percent Macronutrients (dry weight)
and Percent Water (whole food)
Food Protein Carbohydrate Fat Water
Egg, white 100 0 0 88
Tuna solid,white, water 97 0 3 63
Salmon (baked) 81 0 19 67
Tuna chunk,light,oil 77 0 23 61
Corned beef 69 0 31 59
Ground beef,lean 57 0 43 56
Cheese, Parmesan (grated) 55 5 40 18
Ham 54 0 46 53
Ground beef,regular 53 0 47 54
Cheese, Swiss 47 7 47 42
Egg, whole 46 8 46 75
Yogurt, nonfat 43 57 0 80
Soybeans 41 20 39 71
Cheese, American processed 40 0 60 39
Milk, nonfat 39 59 2 91
Sesame seeds 29 14 57 5
Lentils, cooked 29 69 2 72
Sausage 29 0 71 45
Peas, split 27 71 2 70
Walnut, black 26 13 61 4
Frankfurter 26 5 68 54
Chickpeas (garbanzos) 23 75 6 60
Pinto beans, cooked 23 75 2 65
Pistachio nuts 22 26 52 4
Mushroom, cooked 25 67 8 91
Lima beans, cooked 24 74 2 64
Cashew nuts 16 35 49 2
Macaroni (enriched) 15 83 2 64
Tomato paste 16 80 3 74
Bread, whole wheat 16 76 7 38
Bread,1/3 wht (Pmnk) 16 78 6 37
Spaghetti (enriched), ckd 15 83 2 64
Egg noodles 15 80 4 70
Walnut, Persian (English) 15 19 65 4
Bread,2/3 wht (rye) 14 79 7 37
Onions 14 85 0 91
Corn 13 87 0 76
Potato (baked+skin) 9 91 0 71
Rice, brown 9 89 2 70
Avacado flesh (Florida) 8 46 46 80
Strawberries (raw) 8 83 8 92
Rice, white 7 93 0 73

 

Brown rice would be more nutritious than white rice, except that the fats in germ that is removed to make white rice can go rancid. Ingestion of Advanced Glycation End-Products (AGES) is detrimental to health.

Table 4gives the percent fat obtained for selected items in the above table, and breaks down the fat into percent saturated, monosaturated, and polyunsaturated fat. Numbers are rounded to the nearest whole number, which is why the total percentages don’t always add to 100. Monosaturated fats and polyunsaturated fats are preferred to unsaturated fats except where there is rancidity. Again, ingestion of Advanced Glycation End-Products (AGES) is detrimental to health. I had no data for non-fat cheese, the only kind of cheese that I eat.

 

TABLE 4 Percent Fat Types
(rounded)
Food Saturated Monosaturated Polyunsaturated % Fat
Cheese, American processed 67 30 4 52
Ground beef,lean 45 50 4 56
Egg, whole 44 52 4 48
Corned beef 44 52 4 29
Frankfurter 39 51 10 63
Ham 39 49 12 45
Sausage 37 50 11 69
Salmon (baked) 24 48 28 18
Tuna chunk,light,oil 22 30 48 18
Avacado flesh (Florida) 22 60 18 80
Cashew nuts 21 62 18 63
Soybeans 15 22 62 33
Pistachio nuts 13 71 16 52
Walnut, Persian (English) 9 24 66 64
Walnut, black 7 24 70 59

 

Table 5 gives relative proportions of all of the essential amino acids (plus tyrosine) for some representative high-protein animal foods as well as for some low-methionine plant foods.

Lysine is given after methionine because lysine is most often the limiting amino acid (the essential amino acid found in the smallest quantity relative to requirement) in cereals, nuts, and seeds — but lysine in abundant in legumes, for which methionine is typically the limiting amino acid [AMERICAN JOURNAL OF CLINICAL NUTRITION; Young,VR; 59(suppl):1203s-1212s (1994)]. Lysine is therefore listed second in the table. Leucine is listed third because of its paradoxical ability to reduce fat in high doses [DIABETES; Zhang,Y; 56(6):1647-1654 (2007)] and low doses [DIABETES; Cheng,Y; 59(1):17-25 (2010)]. Leucine and threonine are the limiting amino acid in vegetables and fruits, although vegetables and fruits are too low in protein to be considered significant proteins sources. Trytophan restriction has been shown to have a modest (compared to methionine restriction) ability to extend lifespan in rats [ MECHANISMS OF AGEING AND DEVELOPMENT; Ooka,H; 43(1):79-98 (1988)], reputedly by opposing an age-related increase in brain serotonin.

Tyramine was evaluated because of claims that high dietary tyramine could have adverse reactions with monoamine oxidase inhibitors (I take deprenyl). But none of the foods listed have seriously high levels of tyramine, so tyramine is not really a concern.

Again, this data is taken from  [FOOD VALUES OF PORTIONS COMMONLY USED by Jean Pennington (1989)]. I have adjusted the Pennington data to be standardized for 100 grams of food, rather than reproducing the variable quantities of food given, which makes comparison difficult. I may have made transcription errors, but probably not many (if any).

 

TABLE 5 Low Methionine Beans/Grains
Essential amino acids (+tyramine)
(milligrams/100 grams food)
Met = Methionine
Lys = Lysine
Leu = Leucine
Thr = Threonine
Try = Typtophan
Iso = Isoleucine
Phe = Phenylalanine
Val = Valine
His = Histidine
Tyr = Tyrosine
Food Met Lys Leu Thr Try Iso Phe Val His Tyr
Skim milk,dry 907 2867 3543 1633 510 2187 1746 2420 980 1747
American cheese 579 2225 1982 729 329 1036 1139 1343 914 1229
Walnuts, black 479 732 1729 739 325 993 1086 1304 489 761
Egg white 394 642 882 451 155 618 636 761 230 406
Walnuts, Persian (English) 286 293 1007 454 193 575 636 732 364 446
Cashew nuts 279 829 1304 600 239 743 804 1054 404 496
Soybeans, cooked 224 1108 1355 723 242 807 869 831 449 630
Whey, dry 200 967 1067 567 233 567 567 300 233 367
Rice, cooked 167 292 542 333 83 292 375 458 208 375
Yogurt, nonfat 169 514 578 235 32 312 312 474 142 289
Kidney (red) beans 130 595 693 365 103 383 469 454 241 244
Chickpeas (garbanzos) 116 593 631 329 85 380 475 372 244 220
Blackeyed peas (cowpeas) 110 523 592 294 95 314 451 368 240 250
Lima beans, cooked 100 523 673 337 92 411 470 469 238 276
Peas (raw) 82 317 323 203 37 195 200 235 106 113
Adzuki beans 79 567 632 255 72 300 398 387 198 224
Lentils, cooked 77 779 809 400 100 482 551 554 314 298
Corn, cooked 70 141 359 133 23 133 155 191 91 126
Broadbeans (Fava) 62 468 572 270 72 306 97 338 193 241
Spaghetti, cooked 51 109 220 133 41 170 177 _ 80 113
Mushrooms 40 211 129 94 46 82 80 97 57 46
Potato, baked 33 126 124 75 32 84 92 117 45 77
Pinto beans, cooked 33 564 656 346 97 363 444 430 229 231
Amaranth 30 109 167 85 27 102 114 118 44 68
Avacado flesh (Florida) 29 75 99 53 17 57 54 78 23 39
Mung beans, cooked 25 123 131 58 27 39 98 85 97 52
Tomato paste 19 108 105 86 26 73 80 77 60 51
Onion 10 56 41 28 18 42 30 28 19 29

 

Confusion can be caused by the variable amounts of proteins in the foods. Some foods have high water content (such as onion), or high carbohydrate content (such as rice), or high fat content (such as nuts). To compare relative amounts of methionine in the proteins in the foods, I have created Table 6 in which I have adjusted the values to reflect milligrams of amino acid per gram of protein, rather than the per 100 grams of food used in the previous table. To do this, I first calculate dry weight [(100 − % water) / 100] and then divide by % protein. (Note that Persian/English walnuts contain 60% the protein of black walnuts, mostly because of higher fat content. This creates a misimpression that Persian/English walnuts are much lower in methionine than black walnuts.)

I make no guarantee that I have made no transcription errors in manually copying data from either table to my calculator.

 

>

TABLE 6 Low Methionine Beans/Grains
Essential amino acids
(milligrams/gram protein)
Met = Methionine
Lys = Lysine
Leu = Leucine
Thr = Threonine
Try = Typtophan
Iso = Isoleucine
Phe = Phenylalanine
Val = Valine
His = Histidine
% P = % Protein (dry weight)
% W = % Water
Food Met Lys Leu Thr Try Iso Phe Val His % P % W
Rice (dry) 24 42 77 48 12 42 54 65 30 7 70
Milk,nonfat 24 75 92 43 13 57 45 63 26 40 91
Cheese, American 24 91 81 30 13 42 47 55 37 40 39
Corn, cooked 22 45 115 43 7.4 43 50 61 29 13 76
Sesame seeds 21 20 47 25 13 26 33 34 18 29 5
Walnuts, Persian (English) 20 20 70 32 13 40 44 51 25 15 4
Walnuts, black 19 29 69 30 13 40 44 52 20 26 4
Yogurt, skim 19 60 67 27 3.7 36 36 55 17 43 80
Soybeans, cooked 19 93 114 61 20 68 73 70 38 41 71
Cashew nuts 18 53 83 38 15 47 51 67 26 16 2
Avacado flesh (Florida) 18 47 62 33 11 36 34 49 14 8 80
Mushroom, cooked 18 94 57 42 20 36 36 45 25 25 91
Chickpeas (garbanzos) 13 64 69 36 9.2 41 52 40 27 23 60
Potato 13 48 48 29 12 32 35 45 17 9 71
Lentils, cooked 9.5 96 100 49 12 59 68 68 39 29 72
Spaghetti, cooked 9.4 20 41 25 7.6 31 33 _ 15 15 64
Onion 8 45 33 22 14 34 24 22 15 14 91
Tomato paste 4.5 26 25 21 6 18 19 19 14 16 74
Pinto beans, cooked 4 70 81 43 12 45 55 53 28 23 65

 

I am searching for foods that are high in protein, but low in methionine, as a source of protein. Preferably the foods should be high in the essential amino acids (other than methionine), and low in fat (especially saturated fat) and low in carbohydrate. As sources of protein, the data in the Table 6 are important in proportion to the percent protein in the food, especially when the water content is low. As long as protein is adequate in the diet overall, other foods that are low in protein and high in water are not much of a concern from a methionine restriction point of view. Legumes offer the best tradeoff of low methionine, and high protein (high essential amino acids), particularly lentils and pinto beans. Adzuki beans would be a contender except that the high fiber content makes them hard to process. I prefer to get my fiber from other sources.

Table 7 was created by dividing methionine amount into the amounts of the other essential amino acids shown in Table 5. Thus, the numbers in the lysine column reflect how many times the lysine content of the food exceed the methionine content.

 

TABLE 7 Ratio of Essential amino acids to methionine
(Essential amino acids)/methionine
Lys = Lysine
Leu = Leucine
Thr = Threonine
Try = Typtophan
Iso = Isoleucine
Phe = Phenylalanine
Val = Valine
His = Histidine
Food Lys Leu Thr Try Iso Phe Val His
Pinto beans, cooked 17 20 10 2.9 11 13 13 6.9
Lentils, cooked 10 11 5.2 1.3 6.3 7.2 7.2 4.1
Broadbeans (Fava) 7.5 9.2 4.3 1.2 6.4 1.6 5.5 3.1
Adzuki beans 7.2 8.0 3.2 0.91 3.8 5.0 4.9 2.5
Tomato paste 5.7 5.5 4.5 1.4 3.8 4.2 4.1 3.2
Onion 5.6 4.1 2.8 1.8 4.2 3.0 2.8 1.9
Mushrooms 5.3 3.2 2.6 1.2 2.0 2.0 2.4 1.4
Lima beans, cooked 5.2 6.7 3.4 0.92 4.1 4.7 4.7 2.4
Chickpeas (garbanzos) 5.1 5.4 2.8 0.73 3.3 4.1 3.2 2.1
Soybeans, cooked 4.9 6.0 3.2 1.1 3.6 3.9 3.7 2.0
Mung beans, cooked 4.9 5.2 2.3 1.1 1.6 3.9 3.4 3.9
Blackeyed peas (cowpeas) 4.8 5.4 2.7 0.86 2.9 4.1 3.3 2.2
Whey, dry 4.8 5.3 2.8 1.2 2.8 1.5 1.2 1.8
Kidney (red) beans 4.6 5.3 2.8 0.79 2.9 3.6 3.5 1.9
Peas (raw) 3.9 3.9 2.5 0.45 2.4 2.4 2.9 1.3
Potato, baked 3.8 3.8 2.3 0.97 2.5 2.8 3.5 1.4
Cheese, American 3.8 3.4 1.3 0.57 1.8 2.0 2.3 1.6
Amaranth 3.6 5.6 2.8 0.9 3.4 3.8 3.9 1.5
Skim milk,dry 3.2 3.9 1.8 0.56 2.4 1.9 2.7 1.1
Cashew nuts 3.0 4.7 2.2 0.86 2,7 2.9 3.8 1.4
Yogurt, nonfat 3.0 3.4 1.4 0.19 1.8 1.8 2.8 0.84
Avacado flesh (Florida) 2.6 3.4 1.8 0.59 2.0 1.9 2.7 0.79
Spaghetti, cooked 2.1 4.3 2.6 0.80 3.3 3.5 _ 1.6
Corn, cooked 2.0 5.1 1.9 0.32 1.9 2.2 2.7 1.3
Rice, cooked 1.7 3.2 2.0 0.50 1.7 2.2 2.7 1.2
Egg white 1.6 2.2 1.1 0.39 1.6 1.6 1.9 0.58
Walnuts, black 1.5 3.6 1.5 0.68 2.1 2.3 2.7 1.0
Walnuts, Persian (English) 1.0 3.5 1.6 0.67 2.0 2.2 2.6 1.3

 

(return to contents)

IV. METHIONINE RESTRICTION DIET

Pinto beans and lentils are the high-protein foods that show the best low-methionine, high-lysine profile, by a large margin. Lentils, however, are easier to soak before cooking to remove phytates, and produce a bit less odiferous flatulance than pinto beans. Both legumes, however, are high in phytic acid and raffinose oligosaccharides. Humans lack the enzyme to digest raffinose, which passes to the lower intestine where bacteria possessing the digestive enzyme create gases which can be quite odiferous.

Soaking pinto beans for 16 hours at room temperature only reduces raffinose oligosaccharides by 10%, and 90 minutes of cooling only cuts the raffinose oligosaccharide content in half [JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL AND FOOD CHEMISTRY; Song,D; 54(4):1296-1301 (2006)].

Just as the objective of calorie restriction is not to live without calories, methionine is an essential amino acid that can be reduced to 60% normal consumption to obtain most of the benefit [BIOGERONTOLOGY; Caro,P; 9(3):183-196 (2008)]. That dietary objective can be met without the need to consume legumes.

(return to contents)

 

Source: LIFE EXTENSION BENEFITS OF METHIONINE RESTRICTION

She was proud to be a vegan and wanted her son to live like she did. But her family members said she took her food choices too far — her diet became a danger, in their eyes, something closer to an obsession than a healthy lifestyle.

“She was going to live on water and sunlight,” her sister-in-law told CBS Pittsburgh.

When the 33-year-old woman from western Pennsylvania, Elizabeth Hawk, began feeding her 11-month-old child sparse meals of only fruit and nuts, however, that was beyond the pale.

The boy developed what the sister-in-law, Brandy Hawk, described as a severe rash. He seemed to have lost control of his motor skills, she said, rendering his hands useless. Elizabeth Hawk said allergies were the reason for his apparent malaise, not the diet.

That argument did not convince Jerry Hawk, Elizabeth’s separated husband and the father of the child. He removed his son from his estranged wife’s care, taking the boy to a Children & Youth Services agency in nearby Fayette County. From there, reported Philly.com, the agency took the child to a hospital in West Virginia.

An attending physician said the lack of nutritious food, according to Pennsylvania’s WKBN, caused a “failure to thrive.” Malnourishment had hindered the boy’s ability to develop, and ignoring the skin condition could have led to septic shock.

It is not inevitable that a vegan-only menu would doom young children to sickness or starvation, as The Washington Post wrote in July. But a commitment to veganism can make raising a healthy child more challenging, as parents must ensure that a child ingests sufficient calories and the correct balance of nutrients. In 2001, for instance, a pair of vegetarian nutritionists published recommendations for vegan infants in the Journal of the American Dietetic Association:

“For the first 4 to 6 months, breast milk should be the sole food with soy-based infant formula as an alternative. Commercial soymilk should not be the primary beverage until after age 1 year. Breastfed vegan infants may need supplements of vitamin B-12 if maternal diet is inadequate; older infants may need zinc supplements and reliable sources of iron and vitamins D and B-12. Timing of solid food introduction is similar to that recommended for non-vegetarians. Tofu, dried beans, and meat analogs are introduced as protein sources around 7-8 months. Vegan diets can be planned to be nutritionally adequate and support growth for infants.”

The young boy now lives with his father. Brandy Hawk, the sister-in-law, told CBS Pittsburgh the child is “doing great” and has “turned completely around.”

Elizabeth Hawk faces charges of child endangerment and was released on her own recognizance. A preliminary hearing has been set for Nov. 14, Philly.com reported.

Source: Vegan mom fed her 11-month-old only fruit and nuts. Now she faces child endangerment charges. – The Washington Post

Anyone who has spent any time on the gridiron — even at a young age — likely knows the typical punishments a coach will dole out if his rules aren’t followed. There are “suicides,” a grueling running exercise in which participants have to run to the 20-yard line, touch it, then run back to the end zone (then the 30, then the 40, etc.). If you’re in “Friday Night Lights,” there’s running up a muddy hill in the rain then walking back home. And then there are typical, old-fashioned laps around the field,

Source: Volunteer football coach dismissed for making boy run laps after he bullied teammate – The Washington Post

Psychologists say being unable to find a job can change your personality

When you’re out of work, you may become less friendly, less hard-working, and less open to new experiences.

Source: How unemployment can change your personality – Business Insider

A prominent local media executive fired from Yahoo last year has filed a lawsuit alleging the firm’s CEO Marissa Mayer led a campaign to purge male employees and replace them with women.

Misandry at work by the man haters again!

A prominent local media executive fired from Yahoo last year has filed a lawsuit accusing CEO Marissa Mayer of leading a campaign to purge male employees.

“Mayer encouraged and fostered the use of (an employee performance-rating system) to accommodate management’s subjective biases and personal opinions, to the detriment of Yahoo’s male employees,” said the suit by Scott Ard filed this week in federal district court in San Jose.

Ard, who worked for Yahoo for 3 ½ years until January 2015, is now editor-in-chief of the Silicon Valley Business Journal. His lawsuit also claims that Yahoo illegally fired large numbers of workers ousted under a performance-rating system imposed by Mayer. That allegation was not tied to gender.

Yahoo spokeswoman Carolyn Clark said Yahoo couldn’t comment on pending litigation, but she defended the company’s performance-review process, which she said was guided by “fairness.”

“Our performance-review process was developed to allow employees at all levels of the company to receive meaningful, regular and actionable feedback from others,” Clark said. “We believe this process allows our team to develop and do their best work. Our performance-review process also allows for high performers to engage in increasingly larger opportunities at our company, as well as for low performers to be transitioned out.”

In addition to Mayer, two other female executives — Kathy Savitt, former chief marketing officer, and Megan Liberman, editor-in-chief of Yahoo News, identified in the lawsuit as Yahoo’s vice president of news at the time — are accused in the lawsuit of discriminating on the basis of gender.

“When Savitt began at Yahoo the top managers reporting to her … including the chief editors of the verticals and magazines, were less than 20 percent female. Within a year and a half those top managers were more than 80 percent female,”

the lawsuit said. “Savitt has publicly expressed support for increasing the number of women in media and has intentionally hired and promoted women because of their gender, while terminating, demoting or laying off male employees because of their gender.

“Of the approximately 16 senior-level editorial employees hired or promoted by Savitt … in approximately an 18-month period, 14 of them, or 87 percent, were female,” the lawsuit said.

Ard, who was hired at Yahoo in 2011, stated in the suit that until Savitt and Liberman took over management of the firm’s media section in early 2014, he had received performance reviews and stock options reflecting “fully satisfactory” work. But in June 2014, Liberman told him that his role as head of editorial programming for Yahoo’s home page was being given to a woman Liberman had recently hired, the suit said.

Then in January 2015, during a performance review phone call, Liberman told Ard he was fired, effective that day, because “his performance was not satisfactory.”

“Liberman stated that she was terminating (Ard) because she had not received a requested breakdown of (his) duties. (Ard) had already provided that very information as requested, however, and reminded Liberman that he had done so,” the lawsuit said. “Liberman’s excuse for terminating (Ard) was a pretext.”

Right after the call, Ard requested a copy of his performance review and said he wanted to appeal his firing, the suit said. “Both requests were denied and (Ard) was ordered to turn in his laptop and depart the premises immediately.”

Ard’s suit also takes aim at the performance-review process he said Mayer imposed. The process allowed high-level managers to arbitrarily change scores of employees they had no contact with, and it “permitted and encouraged discrimination based on gender or any other personal bias held by management.”

Liberman, he said, once “unilaterally lowered” the scores of three men whose performance Ard had evaluated, while she maintained the scores of two women.

Yahoo’s use of this review system to fire many workers individually in a short time period broke the U.S. and California Worker Adjustment and Retraining Notification (WARN) acts, which mandate advance notification of mass layoffs, the suit alleged. “Marissa Mayer became CEO on a wave of optimism and then engaged in a sleight of hand to terminate large numbers of employees without announcing a single layoff,” the suit said.

Yahoo’s diversity reports indicate that the percentage of women in leadership positions at the company rose slightly to 24 percent in 2015 from 23 percent in 2014.

Source: Yahoo CEO Marissa Mayer led illegal purge of male employees, lawsuit charges

Yahoo Inc last year secretly built a custom software program to search all of its customers’ incoming emails for specific information provided by U.S. intelligence officials, according to people familiar with the matter.

Source: Exclusive: Yahoo secretly scanned customer emails for U.S. intelligence – sources

a 1989 study of chronic users showed a maximum detection window of 25 days at a sensitivity of 20 ng/mL. Yet he points out that only one subject tested positive after 14 days, and it took an average of just 9.8 days before cannabinoid levels were no longer detectible. And while a 1984 study testing chronic users at a cutoff of 50 ng/mL showed a maximum of 40 days to get clean, 8 out of the 10 subjects needed only 13 days to show their first negative.

Source: How Long Does THC Stay in Your System? | Leafly

When Comey, the director of the FBI decided not to charge Hillary Clinton, it looks like it had more to do with money than motive.

Source: New Scandal: Hillary Caught Paying Off FBI Director? – Liberty News Now

“Having a plan could be the difference between life and death.”

An axe, life vest, and helmet…….

Source: Hurricane Matthew leaves 11 dead in destructive march toward U.S.

The idea of using the body’s immune system to fight cancer has been around for a century, but only in the past half a dozen years have dramatic breakthroughs begun rocking the medical world.

“That’s when the tsunami came,” says Drew Pardoll, director of the Bloomberg-Kimmel Institute for Cancer Immunology at Johns Hopkins University, and those advances are spawning hundreds of clinical trials nationwide, plus generating intense interest from patients, physicians and investors. Yet researchers remember the past anti-cancer efforts that fizzled after initially showing promise — which explains why most say daunting hurdles and years of perseverance are still ahead.

Here’s a primer about the new treatments and how they work:

What is cancer immunotherapy?

Immunotherapy is a significantly different approach from conventional treatments such as chemotherapy or radiation. The latter attack the malignancy itself, while immunotherapy aims to empower the immune system to kill it.

Because of the immune system’s unique power, says the nonprofit Cancer Research Institute, this therapy could prove a formidable weapon against many kinds of cancer and offer long-term protection with reduced side effects.

Which immunotherapies are sparking excitement? 

Two types of immunotherapy are drawing most of the interest: checkpoint inhibitors, which remove “brakes” from the immune system, allowing it to see and go after cancer; and CAR T-cell therapy, which involves a more customized attack.

“Checkpoint” inhibitors are designed to block the ability of certain proteins to blunt or weaken the response of the immune system so it can’t recognize and go after abnormal cells. In normal times, such checkpoint proteins keep the immune system from being too aggressive and damaging the body. But cancer sometimes hijacks them and uses them to suppress the immune system’s response to disease.

The Food and Drug Administration has cleared four checkpoint inhibitors for adults: Yervoy, also known as ipilimumab; Keytruda, or pembrolizumab; Opdivo, or nivolumab, and Tecentriq, or atezolizumab. The drugs are approved for malignancies including melanoma and Hodgkin lymphoma, as well as lung, kidney and bladder cancer. The treatments also are being tested in a wide range of other cancers.

Former president Jimmy Carter was treated with Keytruda, surgery and radiation for advanced melanoma last year. He announced in December that all signs of his cancer had disappeared.

In CAR T-cell therapy, T cells — a key part of the immune system — are removed from a patient, genetically modified in the lab to target a specific cancer and infused back into the person. This treatment, available only in clinical trials, is being tested mainly for leukemia and lymphoma. The Food and Drug Administration is likely to approve the first CAR T-cell treatment next year or in 2018.

Of these two immunotherapy approaches, most research and investor interest is focused on checkpoint inhibitors. That’s because they are off-the-shelf treatments that are much easier to administer than customized T-cell therapy, said Crystal Mackall, a former National Cancer Institute researcher who’s now leading immunotherapy trials for Stanford University School of Medicine.

What are some of the main challenges in immunotherapy?

Among the biggest challenges are increasing the response rate among patients and turning initial responses into long-lasting remissions. CAR T-cell therapy often produces a high remission rate in blood-disorder trials, but a significant percentage of patients relapse.

Checkpoint inhibitors induce responses — signaling a tumor has been shrunk or stabilized — in an average of just about 20 percent of patients, said oncologist Elizabeth Jaffee, the deputy director of the Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center at Hopkins. Researchers need to understand why only some cases and some cancers respond. Why, for example, the treatment benefits melanoma but not pancreatic cancer. They think the key to improving effectiveness will be coming up with combination treatments, as happened with AIDS. Jaffee points out that the tide was turned against that disease only after researchers figured out how to use a “cocktail” of medications to keep people with HIV from developing AIDS.

Nationwide, combination trials are testing the simultaneous use of two or more checkpoint inhibitors, a checkpoint inhibitor with a CAR T-cell therapy or an immunotherapy plus radiation and chemotherapy. But combining these can increase safety risks.

Jill O’Donnell-Tormey, chief executive of the Cancer Research Institute, said researchers also are trying to understand tumors’ “micro-environments,” which contain cells and other factors that appear to sometimes suppress the immune system’s response to cancer. The institute, along with the American Association for Cancer Research and two European groups, sponsored the three-day conference in New York.

What are immunotherapy’s downsides?

By revving up the immune system, immunotherapy can cause sometimes serious damage to healthy tissue and organs. Researchers are working on ways to limit or even reverse the potential toxicity, but much work needs to be done.

CAR T-cell therapy poses two types of safety risks. Almost all patients get sick with flu-like symptoms, including high fever and pain, a week or so after the treatment; some end up in intensive care. The treatment also can cause brain swelling that can be fatal.

Yet standard treatments have major side effects as well. Chemotherapy and radiation, when used for children with leukemia, can cause long-term problems such as secondary cancers, infertility and heart damage. In many ways, researchers say, immunotherapy is less toxic over the long term and might eventually be a good first-line alternative to chemo and radiation.

Immunotherapy can carry higher price tags. For example, Merck’s checkpoint inhibitor, Keytruda, costs about $150,000 a year. Once CAR T-cell therapies are approved by the Food and Drug Administration, they may cost hundreds of thousands of dollars a year, according to some analysts. If the treatments are used as directed by the agency, chances are good that insurance will pay for at least some of that.

Does immunotherapy work for children?

Immunotherapy in kids is a mixed picture.

Checkpoint inhibitors are only now being tested extensively in children, so it will take time to see how well they work. But very early-stage studies suggest that they may not be as effective as in adults. One theory holds that these drugs work better in cancers with many mutations — and pediatric cancers tend to have many fewer mutations.

CAR T-cell treatment, on the other hand, is being widely tested in children and has shown impressive effectiveness against acute lymphoblastic leukemia, the most common childhood leukemia.

How do I find immunotherapy treatments?

Talk first to your doctor, who should be able to help you find appropriate medication or clinical trials for unapproved treatment. Trials sponsored by the National Cancer Institute can be found at trials.cancer.gov. Studies also are listed on the website ClinicalTrials.gov –though that doesn’t signify government endorsement or approval. Another resource is the Cancer Research Institute’s Clinical Trial Finder. 

Read more:

Family hopes immunotherapy will save young girl with tumor

Long-term survival rates lengthen for melanoma patients on immunotherapy

Brain cancer replaces leukemia as leading cause of cancer deaths in children

While confident that immunotherapy will play an increasing role in cancer treatment, researchers must overcome some obstacles.

Source: Cancer immunotherapy is moving fast. Here’s what you need to know. – The Washington Post

Driven by technological progress, human life expectancy has increased greatly since the nineteenth century. Demographic evidence has revealed an ongoing reduction in old-age mortality and a rise of the maximum age at death, which may gradually extend human longevity. Together with observations that lifespan in various animal species is flexible and can be increased by genetic or pharmaceutical intervention, these results have led to suggestions that longevity may not be subject to strict, species-specific genetic constraints. Here, by analysing global demographic data, we show that improvements in survival with age tend to decline after age 100, and that the age at death of the world’s oldest person has not increased since the 1990s. Our results strongly suggest that the maximum lifespan of humans is fixed and subject to natural constraints.

Source: Evidence for a limit to human lifespan : Nature : Nature Research

Source: Next Big Future: Research towards enabling minds as healthy and productive as twenty year olds in people who are 60-80

Source: Next Big Future: Stem cells delivered via Skin gun can reduce second degree burn treatment from 3 to 4 weeks to days

Source: Next Big Future: New Alloy Is As Light As Aluminum, As Strong as Titanium Alloys

Source: Next Big Future: Titanium-gold alloy that is four times harder than most steels

Source: Next Big Future: Transparent Spinel aluminum for transparent armor, next generation lasers, ruggedized smart phones and tablets

Source: Next Big Future: Microbiome impacts tissue repair and regeneration

Source: Next Big Future: Toxic air pollution nanoparticles discovered in the human brain and could be a possible cause of Alzheimer’s disease

Source: Next Big Future: Ten percent have immune systems that ignore HIV and thus the immune system is saved and AIDS does not develop

Source: Next Big Future: US Army says Ground Warfare is on the cusp of being fundamentally transformed to become intensely lethal

Source: Next Big Future: Current Review of Low Energy Nuclear Reactions aka Cold Fusion by the US Naval Sea Systems Command

Source: Next Big Future: Towards pills that can mimick many of the benefits of exercise

Source: Next Big Future: Towards pills that can mimick many of the benefits of exercise

Source: Next Big Future: DARPA funds seven teams to modulate nerves to treat disease

Skeletal muscle secretes several bioactive proteins from within the cell into extracellular fluid. The secretion of several proteins, whose levels increase in response to exercise, can mediate exercise-induced benefits such as metabolic improvement, anti-inflammation, and muscle hypertrophy. We recently found a novel muscle-secreted protein SPARC which may be fundamental for the colon cancer prevention mechanism of regular exercise, demonstrated by various epidemiological studies. Many other proteins, along with c-miRNAs in exosome and metabolites, secreted from muscle have yet to be identified. In the future, the presence and beneficial function of more unknown bioactive factors are expected to be discovered, which strengthens the development of sports science.

Source: BioDiscovery Skeletal muscle: novel and intriguing characteristics as a secretory organ

Putative Effects of Extreme Physical Activity on the Brain and Cognitive FunctionDespite the positive effects of moderate physical activity on the brain, a number of studies have linked extreme exercise to disruption of cellular, metabolic, and hormonal processes and, in turn, to adverse neurological sequelae and cognitive dysfunction. Here, we review cellular mechanisms by which extreme physical activity might interfere with normal neuronal function, particularly those involved in learning and memory.Increased Reactive Oxygen Species and Cytokine ProductionThe brain comprises approximately 2% of adult human body weight and yet consumes approximately 20% of oxygen at rest (Allaman, 2013). The high rate of oxygen consumption, coupled with the low levels of anti-oxidant enzymes found in the brain, particularly during intense levels of physical activity, increases the vulnerability of the CNS to oxidative stress (Uttara et al., 2009). It has been shown that extreme levels of physical activity generate high levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), leading to oxidative damage to DNA, RNA, proteins, and lipids (Aguiló et al., 2005). Tsakiris et al. (2006) demonstrated that prolonged forced swimming induced increased levels of ROS in rats (Tsakiris et al., 2006). It has been demonstrated that intense physical activity results in oxidative stress in rodents as shown by a significant increase in brain glutathione peroxidase (Hara et al., 1997) and lipid peroxidation (Somani and Husain, 1996). Moreover, Rosa et al. (2007) demonstrated young adult mice undergoing 10 days of intense and exhaustive running program exhibited a high index of brain oxidative stress and impaired memory as assessed by fear conditioning. Recapitulating these effects in humans, Aguiló et al. (2005) demonstrated that intense mountain exercise leads to the generation of oxidative stress and high levels of ROS. While vitamin E, an essential anti-oxidant, typically inhibits the production of ROS during lipid peroxidation, intense physical activity in humans leads to a significant increase in vitamin E turnover that weakens antioxidant defence (Mastaloudis et al., 2001). Thus, although moderate levels of physical activity can enhance the antioxidant defence mechanisms, extreme levels of physical activity can deplete anti-oxidant reserve (Mastaloudis et al., 2001), leading to adverse neurological effects (Gomez-Cabrera et al., 2008). Alternatively, cytokines may modulate the negative effects of extreme physical activity. IL-6 is directly released by muscles during physical activity and activates the release of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) from the pituitary gland and increases cortisol levels (Mastorakos et al., 2005). Together, these studies suggest that extreme levels of physical activities may weaken the immune system either by reducing anti-oxidant defence or by altering cortisol levels.

Source: Frontiers | Neuroprotective effects of physical activity on the brain: a closer look at trophic factor signaling | Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience

Figure 4. Schematic representation of mechanisms by which increased physical activity leads to improved cognitive function. The figure depicts the two compartments alongside the blood brain barrier and the bidirectional relationship of BNDF between central and peripheral compartments. For instance, muscles, liver, and immune cells in the periphery impose a significant influence on the brain, particularly on the DG of the hippocampus. Conversely, BDNF has the ability to easily cross the BBB and influence multiple mechanisms in the periphery. The fact that TrkB receptors have been found in the spinal cord, DRGs, muscles, intestines, and kidneys suggests that BDNF can exert multiple regulatory effects on both sides of the BBB. Through co-activation of PGC1α and ERRα, physical activity induces the production of FNCD5. Following cleavage by a protease, FNDC5 is cleaved into irisin, which has the ability to cross the BBB and induce BDNF gene expression in the hippocampus. Notably, it has also been shown that high concentrations of IGF-1 are released by the liver and can, in turn, improve neurogenesis in the DG and induce BDNF gene expression.

Source: Frontiers | Neuroprotective effects of physical activity on the brain: a closer look at trophic factor signaling | Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience

BDNF is synthesized in the periphery by vascular endothelial cells, T-cells, B cells, monocytes (Kerschensteiner et al., 1999; Nakahashi et al., 2000) and skeletal muscles (Mousavi and Jasmin, 2006). Once released, BDNF can cross the BBB bi-directionally (Pan et al., 1998), resulting in a direct relationship between BDNF levels in plasma and the brain (Karege et al., 2002). While most of the BDNF that is produced peripherally is released into circulation, internalized, and stored in platelets, the BDNF produced by muscles is used locally at the neuromuscular junction (Fujimura et al., 2002; Matthews et al., 2009).

Source: Frontiers | Neuroprotective effects of physical activity on the brain: a closer look at trophic factor signaling | Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience

These data unequivocally demonstrate that human irisin exists, circulates, and is regulated by exercise.

Source: Detection and Quantitation of Circulating Human Irisin by Tandem Mass Spectrometry: Cell Metabolism

A myth or an myokine

Source: Does Irisin or FNDC5 exist in human circulation?

A new study finds that exercise releases a hormone that helps the body shed fat and keeps it from forming.

researchers at the University of Florida Health has learned more about how the hormone irisin helps convert calorie-storing white fat cells into brown fat cells that burn energy.

The investigators also discovered that irisin—which typically surges when the heart and other muscles are exerted—inhibits the formation of fatty tissue, making it an attractive target for fighting obesity and diabetes. Irisin appears to work by boosting the activity of genes and a protein that are crucial to turning white fat cells into brown cells. Additionally, the researchers found that irisin significantly increases the amount of energy used by those cells, indicating it has a role in burning fat.

In the study, the research team collected fat cells donated by 28 patients who had breast reduction surgery. After exposing the samples to irisin, they found a fivefold increase in cells that contain a protein known as UCP1, or uncoupling protein 1, that is crucial to lipid metabolism.

“Human primary adipocytes derived from 28 female donors’ fresh subcutaneous white adipose tissue (scWAT) were used to examine the effects of irisin on browning and mitochondrial respiration, and preadipocytes were used to examine the effects of irisin on adipogenesis and osteogenesis,” the authors wrote. “Cultured fragments of scWAT and perirenal brown fat were used for investigating signal transduction pathways that mediate irisin’s browning effect by Western blotting to detect phosphorylated forms of p38, ERK, and STAT3 as well as uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1). Individual responses to irisin in scWAT were correlated with basal expression levels of brown/beige genes. Irisin up-regulated the expression of browning-associated genes and UCP1 protein in both cultured primary mature adipocytes and fresh adipose tissues.”

The findings from this study were published recently in the American Journal of Physiology–Endocrinology and Metabolism in an article entitled “Irisin Exerts Dual Effects on Browning and Adipogenesis of Human White Adipocytes.”

“We used human fat tissue cultures to prove that irisin has a positive effect by turning white fat into brown fat and that it increases the body’s fat-burning ability,” explained senior study investigator Li-Jun Yang, M.D., professor of hematopathology at the University of Florida’s College of Medicine’s department of pathology, immunology, and laboratory medicine.

Dr. Yang and her colleagues also found that irisin suppressed fat-cell formation. Among the tested fat tissue samples, irisin reduced the number of mature fat cells by 20–60% compared with those of a control group. That suggests irisin reduces fat storage in the body by hindering the process that turns undifferentiated stem cells into fat cells while also promoting the stem cells’ differentiation into bone-forming cells.

Because more than two-thirds of U.S. adults are overweight or obese, according to the National Institutes of Health, knowing that the body produces small quantities of fat-fighting irisin highlights the importance of regular exercise.

“Instead of waiting for a miracle drug, you can help yourself by changing your lifestyle,” Dr. Yang stressed. “Exercise produces more irisin, which has many beneficial effects including fat reduction, stronger bones, and better cardiovascular health. Irisin can do a lot of things, and this is another piece of evidence about the mechanisms that prevent fat buildup and promote the development of healthy bones when you exercise.”

Source: Exercise Hormone has Dual Role in Shedding and Preventing Fat | GEN News Highlights | GEN

Sex doesn’t end as you age, so keep on using “it.”

Source: Use It Or Lose It: How Age, Hormones, And Masturbation Predict Sexual Health

This paper presents the first analysis of the effect of teacher collective bargaining on long-run labor market and educational attainment outcomes. Our analysis

Source: The Long-Run Effects of Teacher Collective Bargaining by Michael Lovenheim, Alexander Willen :: SSRN

The Costs of Teacher Collective BargainingBy Rick Hess on October 4, 2016 9:10 AMChicago’s teachers are on the verge of striking—for the third time since 2012. Median teacher pay in Chicago Public Schools (CPS) is over $78,000 a year. CPS spends another $27,500 per teacher on benefits. And CPS is offering its teachers an 8.7 percent pay boost over the next four years. So why are Chicago’s teachers threatening to strike?Well, Illinois teachers are supposed to contribute nine percent of their salary towards their defined benefit pension; CPS teachers currently contribute two percent, with the district picking up the rest. The city is asking that teachers contribute the requisite amount—hence, the uproar.CPS is already looking at a shortfall of $300 million in 2017. Mayor Rahm Emanuel has backed a $250 million property tax hike to help address the underfunded pension system, which has about $10 billion in liabilities. If teachers picked up their full nine percent pension contribution, it would save CPS about $130 million a year. As Emanuel put it in August, he was asking teachers to “be part of the solution, of a fair deal to strengthen our classroom and secure their position.”Meanwhile, the Chicago Teachers Union (CTU) is angry that CPS has been forced to cut staff and is demanding that the system hire more nurses and counselors. That would obviously be easier to do if unions worked with the district to control things like pension costs.This all brings to mind an intriguing Cornell University working paper recently published by Michael Lovenheim and Alex Willen. Titled “The Long-Run Effects of Teacher Collective Bargaining,” the 2016 paper is a pioneering look at the impact of teacher collective bargaining on long-run labor market and educational attainment outcomes for students. Using the fact that states have adopted “duty-to-bargain” laws at different points in time, Lovenheim and Willen explore how the presence of collective bargaining affects long-term outcomes.Lovenheim and Willen find that collective bargaining leads to worse labor market outcomes. They report that students who live in a state with a “duty-to-bargain” law for all 12 years of their schooling have two percent lower earnings and work 0.50 fewer hours per week by the time they’re 35-to-49. Using the 1979 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, the authors also find that collective bargaining leads to sizable reductions in mastery of cognitive and non-cognitive skills.As they write, “Our results suggest laws that support collective bargaining for teachers have adverse long-term labor market consequences for students.” Regular readers know that I’m always inclined to treat this kind of sweeping scholarship with a lot of caution. That’s not because of any particular concerns about the quality of the data or the analysis. It just seems self-evidently prudent to be cautious when drawing clear causal conclusions from complex econometric models that use sprawling data sets to address complex social interactions.That said, I find the logic of the analysis pretty compelling. Chicago is a case study in how teachers’ unions have siphoned vast sums out of classrooms and into retirement and health benefits that do nothing for students—and that frequently, I’m afraid, aren’t configured to help attract or keep terrific teachers. We’ll see how Chicago’s latest drama plays out, but it sure seems like the CTU is bent on demonstrating the costs of collective bargaining.

Source: The Costs of Teacher Collective Bargaining – Rick Hess Straight Up – Education Week

Just weeks after ITT Tech’s demise, The Department of Education removed recognition from ITT’s accreditor.

Source: Department of Education ITT accreditor ACICS – Business Insider

Why Americans Feel Poor, in One Chart

Why do so many Americans feel dissatisfied about the economic state of their nation? One simple chart offers a lot of insight. Economists measure standards of living in many ways. Among the most common is to look at the change in the value of goods and services produced by a country, adjusted for inflation and for population growth. This measure, known as per capita real gross domestic product, essentially shows how much income the average person is generating. The chart below shows the cumulative growth in per capita real GDP in the U.S. over the preceding ten years, for each year from 1957 to 2015. It does a great job of depicting the country’s post-World War II macroeconomic experience.  I

Source: Why Americans Feel Poor, in One Chart

The researchers found that the people with Crohn’s disease had significantly higher levels of two types of bacteria, called Escherichia coli and Serratia marcescens, and one fungus, called Candida tropicalis, compared with their healthy relatives and the other people in the study who did not have the disease, according to the study, published Sept. 20 in the journal mBio.Although previous research in mice has suggested that this fungus may be involved in Crohn’s, this is the first time it has been linked to the condition in people, the researchers said.Moreover, when the researchers examined these bacteria and fungus, they found that the three microorganisms worked together to form a so-called biofilm — a thin, sticky layer of microorganisms — that attaches itself to a portion of the gut. This biofilm could trigger the inflammation that causes the symptoms of Crohn’s disease, the researchers said. [5 Ways Gut Bacteria Affect Your Health]The new study “moves the field forward,” said Dr. Arun Swaminath, director of the inflammatory bowel disease program at Lenox Hill Hospital in New York City, who was not involved in the study. “The really neat thing they have done is to show how [these microorganisms] actually interact together,” to form the biofilm, he said.However, the study was conducted in a small group of patients in France and Belgium, and more research is needed to see if these findings would apply to patients in other countries, Swaminath said.Originally published on Live Science.Editor’s Recommendations Body Bugs: 5 Surprising Facts About Your Microbiome The Poop on Pooping: 5 Misconceptions Explained 8 Tips to Be a Probiotic Pro

Source: Cause of Crohn’s Disease: Gut Fungus Now Suspected

An estimated 180,890 American men will be diagnosed with prostate cancer this year. The disease will also take the lives of 26,120 patients. But according to a new 10-year study conducted on more than 1,500 men in the United Kingdom, those who are diagnosed may want to hold off on starting aggressive treatment right away.Typically, men who are diagnosed with prostate cancer are given several options: Have surgery to remove all or part of the gland, undergo radiotherapy to reduce any tumors, or take a “watch and wait” active monitoring approach, which involves additional screenings and biopsies but no treatment, as the cancer can grow so slowly that it often doesn’t present a medical problem for those who have it. The study, published Wednesday in the New England Journal of Medicine, found that men who received treatment ― either surgery or radiotherapy ― were better able to limit their cancer from spreading. But this didn’t necessarily mean immediate treatment led to better overall outcomes. Among the men who took a “watch and wait” approach, nearly half didn’t need any additional treatment. As a result, they avoided the negative side effects that come with surgery and radiation, such as bowel and urinary incontinence, sexual dysfunction and life-threatening cardiovascular issues. Indeed, no matter what approach the men were randomized to, they weren’t likely to die of either the cancer itself, cancer treatment or other causes after ten years. That said, the patients in this study are still being followed because deaths from prostate cancer are usually measured after 15 to 20 years. “This paper really underscores that an active surveillance approach is good for many patients, but there are some who still need upfront treatment,” said Dr. Timothy J. Daskivich, a urologic oncologist and director of health services research for the Cedars-Sinai department of surgery in Los Angeles. “Time will tell if we can sort these patients out in the future.”While some men will need immediate treatment, further developments that help urologists identify low-risk and high-risk patients will be key to making sure that only men who need it the most will have to undergo surgery or radiation.How outcomes differed according to the treatmentThe Prostate Testing for Cancer and Treatment (ProtecT) trial recruited U.K. men ages 50 to 69 from 1999 to 2009. Of 2,664 men who received a diagnosis of prostate cancer, 1,643 agreed to be randomized to any one of three of the most common prostate cancer treatments: active monitoring (545 men), radical prostatectomy (553 men) or radiotherapy (545 men).The men were not further classed into low- or high-risk groups based on the features of their tumor or the levels of prostate-specific antigens in their blood. This is what the researchers found: There was no difference in death rates. The scientists followed up with the men after a median of 10 years and found that while there were less prostate cancer-specific deaths in the groups that got radiation or surgery, the difference was not significant, and all groups had at least a 98.8 percent survival rate when it came to prostate cancer-specific deaths. In all, the death rate from prostate cancer across all groups was about one percent after a median of ten years.There was a difference in the rate of cancer spread. Of the men who were randomized to the active monitoring group, 112 experienced disease progression, including cancer spread, which was higher than in the surgery and radiation groups (46 and 46, respectively). While there appears to be a slight advantage to getting treated immediately after a prostate cancer diagnosis to avoid cancer progression, longer-term follow up is needed to see if these results are significant, the researchers wrote. What this means for U.S. menIn an opinion piece that accompanied the study, Dr. Anthony V. D’Amico of the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute concluded that when compared with surgery or radiation, active monitoring leads to increased cancer spread, and that active monitoring should only be an option for men who already have another life-shortening disease that is expected to result in death after less than 10 years. Daskivich, who was not involved with the study, was more optimistic about active monitoring’s place in prostate cancer care, and included “low-risk” men among those who should consider active monitoring instead of surgery or radiation, even though the study didn’t stratify men according to high or low risk cancers. However, doctors still need more tools that help them confidently sort patients according to risk.“It’s all about treatment selection ― picking out patients who have higher risk disease who should get treated upfront, and those who have lower risk features who don’t need to be treated and managed with active surveillance,” said Daskivich. “That’s going to be the challenge in the coming years.”The results of the study won’t change much for most middle-aged men in the U.S., Daskivich

Source: Treating Prostate Cancer Is Often No Better Than Doing Nothing | Huffington Post

After three months, more than a third of study participants grew back more than half of their lost hair

Source: Arthritis drug Xeljanz may help with the hair loss condition alopecia – CBS News

A hangover-free future is once again being promised, this time courtesy of a controversial former drug czar. The Independent reports David Nutt—who was fired by the British government after claiming horse riding was more dangerous than ecstasy—developed about 90 compounds of something he’s calling “alcosynth” and is testing out two for wide-scale alcohol replacement, which he says will happen by 2050.More From Newser Scientists Find Earth’s Oldest Civilization Key to Extinction of Ancient Bear: Vegan Diet Earth’s Message to Aliens Coming to Humans Soon”They’ll dispense the alcosynth into your cocktail and then you’ll have the pleasure without damaging your liver and your heart,” Nutt says. He says the two alcosynth compounds being tested—one is bitter, the other mostly flavorless—work well in everything from a mojito to a Tom Collins. Alcosynth will get you buzzed—though Nutt says they’ve capped how drunk you can get on it—without the side effects of nausea, headache, or dry mouth. “We know where the good effects of alcohol are mediated in the brain, and can mimic them,” he says. “And by not touching the bad areas, we don’t have the bad effects.” A nontoxic alcohol that doesn’t let drinkers get blotto could save a lot of money, Time reports.The CDC estimated that over-consumption of alcohol cost US taxpayers up to $223.5 billion in 2006. But it could be years before alcosynth is available for your next party, according to the Adam Smith Institute.The libertarian think tank tells Sky News over-regulation will slow the release of what is essentially a new drug. (This study finds there is one proven way to prevent a hangover.)This article originally appeared on Newser: ‘Alcosynth’ Promises the Buzz Without the Hangover

Source: ‘Alcosynth’ promises the buzz without the hangover | Fox News

Drug deaths over the past 15 years have been rising so rapidly that experts say they’ve rarely, if ever, seen anything like it.

This is America on drugs: A visual guide

Updated 11:28 AM ET, Fri September 23, 2016

In modern history, few things have caused such a sharp spike in US deaths as drug overdoses.

CNN reached out to every state for the latest statistics on drug deaths, with half providing data from 2015. It found that drugs deaths continue to rise rapidly in many states.

FATAL ADDICTIONS

Epidemiologists in several states blame the increasing number of drug-related deaths on greater use of heroin and synthetic opioids, such as fentanyl.
“If you look at the cause of death, we just don’t normally see increases like this,” said Robert Anderson, the chief of the mortality statistics branch at the National Center for Health Care Statistics at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

TOP CAUSE OF ACCIDENTAL DEATHS

Drugs are the leading cause of accidental death in this country. Fatal overdoses surpassed shooting deaths and fatal traffic accidents years ago.
For perspective on how fast drug deaths have risen, Anderson said, consider the sharp rise in heart disease in the early half of the 20th century. It took about 50 years for the rate of heart disease to double. It took drug deaths a fraction of that time.
The only thing comparable might be the HIV epidemic when it first reached the United States in the late 1980s, when there were no drugs to treat it. But unlike with HIV, where demonstrators took to the streets to demand help, the drug epidemic often happened out of the spotlight.
That might be because drug deaths have disproportionately hit small towns and rural America, mainly in Appalachia and in the Southwest, far away from the eye of the national media. It became a particularly dangerous problem for middle-age white men and women.

HEROIN’S DEADLY EFFECT

Heroin-related deaths increased 439% from 1999 to 2014. As of 2014, heroin-related deaths had more than tripled in five years and quintupled in 10 years.
In 2014, opioids were involved in 28,647 deaths — 61% of all US drug overdose deaths — and 10,574 were related to heroin, in particular. Data from 2014 reflects “two distinct but interrelated trends,” the CDC notes, a longterm increase in overdose deaths due to prescription opioids and a surge in illicit opioid overdose deaths, mostly related to heroin.

NATIONWIDE EPIDEMIC

In 2010, West Virginia moved into the top spot on the list of states with the highest number of drug deaths. From 2014 to 2015 alone, the number of deaths in that state increased by 12%. New Hampshire saw a 24% increase in deaths in that same time period.
How to get help

Struggling with addiction or know someone who is? Here are several organizations that help addicts beat back their habits and regain their lives.

The state that has struggled the longest is New Mexico. Its Rio Arriba County has the highest number of drug deaths for a single county in the United States, according to data analysis of more than 15 years of records from the CDC and state departments of health. Looking at drug death data from 1999 to 2014, New Mexico most often holds the No. 1 spot for the highest number of deaths.
The sharp uptick in deaths seems to coincide with Americans’ increasing use of drugs like illicit fentanyl.
Pop star Prince died of a fentanyl overdose in April. The pain reliever is often given to cancer patients and is more than 100 times as strong as morphine and 30 to 50 times more powerful than heroin.

STATE HIT THE HARDEST

Appalachia has struggled with a number of high-profile overdose cases recently.
West Virginia is home to six of the top 20 counties in the country with the largest concentrations of drug-related deaths. Kentucky has the most, with nine counties on that list. Ohio has also been hard-hit by the epidemic.

Source: This is America on drugs: A visual guide – CNN.com

The Interior Department says Native Hawaiians can now choose whether to form a unified government, which could eventually enter into formal government-to-government relations with the U.S.

Source: Native Hawaiians Now Have A Pathway To Form A Government : The Two-Way : NPR

Colombia’s Civil War is Finally Over

Colombia’s FARC rebel group voted unanimously to approve a peace deal with the government on Friday, declaring an end to the five-decade war.

Source: Colombia’s Civil War is Finally Over

Most Work Emails Not Important [STUDY]

Do you remember how we got work done before we had to deal with 100 emails a day?  I do. We were empowered to make decisions and those decisions were implicitly backed up by our managers.

Source: Most Work Emails Not Important [STUDY]