Archive for the ‘ Health ’ Category

Reovirus infection induced an autoimmune response against gluten in mice.

Source: Mild Viral Infection May Trigger Celiac Disease Years Later

NEW YORK — Nearly half of U.S. adults have been infected with the human papillomavirus or HPV, according to the National Center for Health Statistics.A report released by the NCHS last week says about 45 percent of Americans ages 18 to 59 had some form of the virus.HPV is the most common sexually transmitted infection and can lead to cervical cancer and genital warts.

Source: Report: Nearly half of U.S. adults are infected with HPV | Fox 59

Source: Facts About Vitamin D and Rheumatoid Arthritis – Rheumatoid Arthritis

DAYTON, Ohio (WKEF/WRGT) – A day care in Texas has a simple message for parents: “Get off your phone.”One of the day care’s parents, Juliana Farris Mazurkewicz, shared a photo of a sign posted on the center’s front door on her Facebook page, and it’s gaini

Source: Texas day care has message for parents: ‘Get off your phone’

Older adults who favored this eating style lost less brain volume, study finds

Source: More Signs Mediterranean Diet May Boost Your Brain – News – Health.com

A sheriff’s deputy in Kansas Tased 91-year-old man with Alzheimer’s disease in his back after he refused to go to the doctor, shocking newly-released body cam footage shows.

Source: Cops tase 91-year-old man with Alzheimer’s | Fox News

The ads started popping up about a decade ago on social media. Instead of selling alcohol with sex and romance, these ads had an edgier theme: Harried mothers chugging wine to cope with everyday stress. Women embracing quart-sized bottles of whiskey, and bellying up to bars to knock back vodka shots with men.

In this new strain of advertising, women’s liberation equaled heavy drinking, and alcohol researchers say it both heralded and promoted a profound cultural shift: Women in America are drinking far more, and far more frequently, than their mothers or grandmothers did, and alcohol consumption is ending their marriages, alienating them from their children and killing them in record numbers.

White women are particularly likely to drink dangerously, with more than a quarter (25%) drinking multiple times a week and the share of binge drinking up 40 percent since 1999, according to a Washington Post analysis of federal health data. In 2013, more than a million women of all races wound up in emergency rooms as a result of heavy drinking, with women in middle age most likely to suffer severe intoxication.

This behavior has contributed to a startling increase in early mortality. The rate of alcohol-related deaths for white women ages 35 to 54 has more than doubled since 1999, according to The Post analysis, accounting for 8 percent of deaths in this age group in 2015.

“It is a looming health crisis,” said Katherine M. Keyes, an alcohol researcher at Columbia University.

Although independent researchers are increasingly convinced that any amount of alcohol poses serious health risks, American women are still receiving mixed messages. Parts of the federal government continue to advance the idea that moderate drinking may be good for you. Meanwhile, many ads for alcohol — particularly on social media — appear to promote excessive drinking, which is universally recognized as potentially deadly. These ads also appear to violate the industry’s code of ethics, according to a Post analysis of alcohol marketing.

For example, when girl-power heroine Amy Schumer guzzled Bandit boxed wine in the movie “Trainwreck,” Bandit’s producer, Trinchero Family Estates, promoted the scene on social media. Young women responded with photos of themselves chugging Bandit. Within months, Trinchero said, sales of boxed wines — sometimes called “binge in a box” — jumped 22 percent.

“We saw it first with tobacco, marketing it to women as their right to smoke. Then we saw lung cancer deaths surpass deaths from breast cancer,” said Rear Adm. Susan Blumenthal, a former assistant surgeon general and an expert on women’s health issues. “Now it’s happening with alcohol, and it’s become an equal rights tragedy.”

Alcohol marketing is regulated primarily by industry trade groups, but dozens of studies have found lapses in their record of enforcing the rules. As a result, an international group of public health experts convened by the World Health Organization’s regional office in Washington, D.C., plans to call in January for governments worldwide to consider legislation similar to laws adopted a decade ago to sharply curtail tobacco advertising.

Officials with the Distilled Spirits Council of the United States, one of the largest U.S. trade groups, defend their record of oversight, saying it has received high marks from federal regulators.

DISCUS tells members that ads should not “in any way suggest that intoxication is socially acceptable conduct.” The Beer Institute tells members that their “marketing materials should not depict situations where beer is being consumed rapidly, excessively.” And the Wine Institute prohibits ads that make “any suggestion that excessive drinking or loss of control is amusing or a proper subject for amusement” or that directly associate use of wine with “social, physical or personal problem solving.”

But these rules appear regularly to be flouted, particularly on alcohol companies’ websites and social-media feeds, which are soaking up a growing share of the more than $2 billion the industry is expected to spend on advertising this year. And the trade groups acknowledge that they do not investigate or act on possible violations unless they receive a formal complaint.

Some of the edgiest ads appear on social media — Facebook, Twitter, Instagram — where they can be narrowly targeted toward the inboxes and desperate little lives of the most eager consumers.

Jokes about becoming inebriated are common.

Women also are frequently shown drinking to cope with daily stress. In one image that appeared on a company website, two white women wearing prim, narrow-brimmed hats, button earrings and wash-and-set hair confer side by side. “How much do you spend on a bottle of wine?” one asks. The other answers, “I would guess about half an hour …” At the bottom is the name of the wine:

Mommy’s Time Out.

Another ad on a company website features a white woman wearing pearls and an apron. “The most expensive part of having kids is all the wine you have to drink,” it says above the name of the wine:

Mad Housewife.

This spring, Mad Housewife offered a Mother’s Day promotion: a six-pack of wine called

Mommy’s Little Helper.

“The rise in hazardous drinking among women is not all due to the ads. But the ads have played a role in creating a cultural climate that says it’s funny when women drink heavily,” said Jean Kilbourne, who has produced several films and books about alcohol marketing to women. “Most importantly, they’ve played a role in normalizing it.

Source: Booze causing ‘crisis’ for women | TribLIVE

World’s Oldest PersonBorn on 29 November 1899, Emma Morano is 116 years old and is currently the world’s oldest living person. She is believed to be the last person living born in the 19th century. So, what’s her secret to longevity? Well, she has been following the same diet for around 90 years. She has three eggs per day (two raw, one cooked), fresh Italian pasta and a dish of raw meat.

Source: 50 Unique Women Who Deserve The Spotlight – Page 24 of 50 – Viral Scoop

She also said many people contact her to purchase positive pregnancy tests, some even traveling from as far as Orlando, but she added that she makes it a point to never ask what the buyers do with the positive pregnancy tests.WJAX-TV’s “law and safety expert” Dale Carson disagreed. “Fraud is the first thing that comes to my mind,” he stated. “This is the kind of thing that makes legislators go ‘we need to pass a law that says you can’t do this.’”

Source: Florida woman earns middle class salary selling positive pregnancy tests on Craigslist – TheBlaze

leading scientist Dr Noel Sharkey, a former advisor to the UN, called on governments to prevent robotics being hijacked by the sex industry

Source: Sex will be just for special occasions in the future as robots will satisfy everyday needs

Ten years ago, Shinya Yamanaka revolutionized biological research with his discovery of how to turn ordinary skin cells into stem cells with just four key genes.

Source: Reflecting on the Discovery of the Decade: Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells | Gladstone Institutes

Mice were rejuvenated through a four-gene cocktail that allowed them to repair aging signs including loss of hair and organs malfunction. There were no signs of cancer and compared to untreated mice, the reprogrammed mice looked younger, with better organ function, improved cardiovascular performance and lived 30 percent longer.

Source: Study shows aging might be reversible thanks to cells group

No, your pubic hair cannot prevent STDs.

Source: Myths about pubic hair you must stop believing t1216 | Photo Galleries of Weight Loss, Diet Plan, Healthy Recipes, Sexual Health | TheHealthSite.com

The mis information begins with a study that has no causation links to anything just much innuendo and misdirection from facts.

Source: Not to shave? In life (and TV), pubic hair is staying on

Dr. Mercola discusses the role of B vitamins and other valuable nutrients to support brain health.

Reprinted with the kind permission of Dr. Mercola.

By Dr. Mercola

A number of studies have investigated the impact of vitamin supplementation to prevent and/or treat cognitive dysfunction and decline.

It’s well-established that healthy fats such as animal-based omega-3 fats are really important for brain health, but other nutrients such as vitamins are also necessary for optimal brain function.

Most recently, a Korean studyconcluded that giving a multivitamin supplement to seniors suffering from mild cognitive impairment and depression helped improve both conditions.

B vitamins in particular, especially folate (B9, aka folic acid in its synthetic form) and vitamins B6 and B12, have made headlines for their powerful role in preventing cognitive decline and more serious dementia such as Alzheimer’s disease.

Mental fogginess and problems with memory are actually two of the top warning signs that you have vitamin B12 deficiency, indicating its importance for brain health.

B Vitamins and Omega-3 — An Important Combo for Brain Health

Although Dr. Michael Greger’s video is a good review on the research about B vitamins, being a vegetarian he does not include information about animal-based omega-3 fats, which are also beneficial in reducing dementia.
Low plasma concentrations of omega-3 and high levels of the amino acid homocysteine are associated with brain atrophy, dementia, and Alzheimer’s. Vitamins B6, B9, and B12 help convert homocysteine into methionine — a building block for proteins.
If you don’t get enough of these B vitamins, this conversion process is impaired and as a result your homocysteine levels increase. Conversely, when you increase intake of folic acid (folate), vitamin B6, and vitamin B12, your homocysteine levels decrease.
In one placebo-controlled trial2 published in 2015, 168 seniors diagnosed with mild cognitive impairment were randomly assigned to receive either placebo, or daily supplementation with 0.8 mg of folic acid, 20 mg of vitamin B6, and 0.5 mg of B12.
It’s worth noting that these are quite high doses — far above the U.S. RDA. All participants underwent cranial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans at the outset of the study, and at the end, two years later.
The effect of the vitamin B supplementation was analyzed and compared to their omega-3 fatty acid concentrations at baseline. Interestingly, only those who had high omega-3 levels reaped beneficial effects from the B vitamins.
As noted by the authors:

“There was a significant interaction between B vitamin treatment and plasma combined omega-3 fatty acids (eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid) on brain atrophy rates.

In subjects with high baseline omega-3 fatty acids (>590 ?mol/L), B vitamin treatment slowed the mean atrophy rate by 40 percent compared with placebo.
B vitamin treatment had no significant effect on the rate of atrophy among subjects with low baseline omega-3 fatty acids (<390 ?mol/L). High baseline omega-3 fatty acids were associated with a slower rate of brain atrophy in the B vitamin group but not in the placebo group…
It is also suggested that the beneficial effect of omega-3 fatty acids on brain atrophy may be confined to subjects with good B vitamin status.”

B Vitamins Significantly Slow Brain Shrinkage

As mentioned above, elevated homocysteine is linked to brain degeneration, and B vitamins are known to suppress homocysteine.
A 2010 study,3 in which participants again received higher than normal doses of B vitamins, also found that people receiving B vitamins experienced far less brain shrinkage than the placebo group.
Here the participants received either a placebo or 800 micrograms (mcg) folic acid, 500 mcg B12, and 20 mg B6. The study was based on the presumption that by controlling homocysteine levels you might be able to reduce brain shrinkage, thereby slowing the onset of Alzheimer’s.
Indeed, after two years those who received the vitamin B regimen suffered significantly less brain shrinkage compared to those who had received a placebo. Those who had the highest levels of homocysteine at the start of the trial experienced brain shrinkage at half the rate of those taking a placebo.
Research Shows B Vitamins Specifically Slow Alzheimer’s Disease
A 2013 study4 takes this research a step further, showing that not only do B vitamins slow brain shrinkage, but they specifically slow shrinkage in brain regions known to be most severely impacted by Alzheimer’s disease. Moreover, in those specific areas the shrinkage is decreased by as much as seven-fold!
The brain scans clearly show the difference between placebo and vitamin supplementation on brain atrophy. As in the studies above, participants taking high doses of folic acid and vitamins B6 and B12 lowered their blood levels of homocysteine, and brain shrinkage was decreased by as much as 90 percent.
As noted by the authors:

” … B vitamins lower homocysteine, which directly leads to a decrease in GM [gray matter] atrophy, thereby slowing cognitive decline.

Our results show that B vitamin supplementation can slow the atrophy of specific brain regions that are a key component of the AD [Alzheimer’s disease] process and that are associated with cognitive decline.”

B12-Rich Foods Reduce Risk of Alzheimer’s in Later Years
Other supporting research includes a small Finnish study5 published in 2010. It found that people who consume vitamin B12-rich foods may reduce their risk of Alzheimer’s in their later years.
For each unit increase in the marker of vitamin B12 (holotranscobalamin), the risk of developing Alzheimer’s was reduced by 2 percent. This makes a strong case for ensuring your diet includes plenty of B vitamin foods, such as meat, poultry, eggs, dairy products and wild-caught fish.
Leafy green vegetables, beans, and peas also provide some of the B vitamins, but if you eat an all vegetarian or vegan diet, you’re at a significantly increased risk of vitamin B12 deficiency, as B12 is naturally present in foods that come from animals, including meat, fish, eggs, milk and milk products.
In such a case, supplementation is really important. Another concern is whether your body can adequately absorb the B12. It’s the largest vitamin molecule we know of, and because of its hefty size, it’s not easily absorbed.
This is why many, if not most, oral B12 supplements fail to deliver any benefits. Vitamin B12 requires a gastric protein called intrinsic factor to bind to it, which allows it to be absorbed in the end of your small intestine (terminal ileum). The intrinsic factor is absorbed first, pulling the attached B12 molecule along with it.
As you grow older, your ability to produce intrinsic factor decreases, thereby increasing your risk for vitamin B12 deficiency. Use of metformin (Glucophage, Glucophage XR, Fortamet, Riomet, and Glumetza) may also inhibit your B12 absorption, especially at higher doses. Drinking four or more cups of coffee a day can reduce your B vitamin stores by as much as 15 percent, and use of antacids will also hinder your body’s ability to absorb B12.
Other Valuable Vitamins for Brain Health
Besides B vitamins, vitamins C and D are also important for optimal brain health.6 Vitamin C plays a role in the production of neurotransmitters, including serotonin, which has antidepressant activity. Vitamin C has also been shown to improve IQ, memory, and offer protection against age-related brain degeneration and strokes.
In one study,7 the combination of vitamin C and E (which work synergistically) helped reduce the risk of dementia by 60 percent. Vitamin C also has detoxifying effects, and due to its ability to cross your blood-brain barrier, it can help remove heavy metals from your brain.
Vitamin D, a steroid hormone produced in your skin in response to sun exposure, also has profound effects on your brain. Pregnant women need to be particularly cognizant of this, as vitamin D deficiency during pregnancy can prevent proper brain development in the fetus, plus a host of other problems. After birth, children need vitamin D for continued brain development, and in adulthood, optimal levels have been shown to help prevent cognitive decline.8,9
Where to Find These Valuable Brain Nutrients
There’s nothing “normal” about cognitive decline. More often than not, it’s due to poor lifestyle choices, starting with a nutrient-deficient diet that is too high in sugars, non-vegetable carbs, unhealthy fats like trans fats, and too many toxins (pesticides and artificial additives, etc).
As a general rule, I recommend getting most if not all of your nutrition from REAL FOOD, ideally organic to avoid toxic pesticides, and locally grown. Depending on your situation and condition however, you may need one or more supplements.
To start, review the following listing of foods that contain the brain nutrients discussed in this article: animal-based omega-3s, vitamins B6, B9, and B12, C, and D. If you find that you rarely or never eat foods rich in one or more of these nutrients, you may want to consider taking a high-quality, ideally food-based supplement. I’ve made some suggestions to keep in mind when selecting a good supplement.

 

Nutrient Dietary Sources Supplement Recommendations
Animal-based omega-3 Fatty fish that is low in mercury, such as wild-caught Alaskan salmon, sardines, and anchovies, as well as organic grass-fed beef.10

Sardines, in particular, are one of the most concentrated sources of omega-3 fats, with one serving containing more than 50 percent of your recommended daily value.

Antarctic krill oil is a sustainable choice. It also has the added benefit of containing natural astaxanthin, which helps prevent oxidation.

Another good option is wild-caught Alaskan salmon oil.

Vitamin B6 Turkey, beef, chicken, wild-caught salmon, sweet potatoes, potatoes, sunflower seeds, pistachios, avocado, spinach and banana.11,12 Nutritional yeast is an excellent source of B vitamins, especially B6.13One serving (2 tablespoons) contains nearly 10 mg of vitamin B6.

Not to be confused with Brewer’s yeast or other active yeasts, nutritional yeast is made from an organism grown on molasses, which is then harvested and dried to deactivate the yeast.

It has a pleasant cheesy flavor and can be added to a number of different dishes. For tips, see this vegan blog post.14

Folate (B9) Fresh, raw, and organic leafy green vegetables, especially broccoli, asparagus, spinach, and turnip greens, and a wide variety of beans, especially lentils, but also pinto beans, garbanzo beans, navy and black beans, and kidney beans.15 Folic acid is a synthetic type of B vitamin used in supplements; folate is the natural form found in foods.

Think: folate comes from foliage(edible leafy plants).

For folic acid to be of use, it must first be activated into its biologically active form — L-5-MTHF.

This is the form able to cross the blood-brain barrier to give you the brain benefits noted.

Nearly half of the population has difficulty converting folic acid into the bioactive form due to a genetic reduction in enzyme activity.

For this reason, if you take a B vitamin supplement, make sure it contains natural folate rather than synthetic folic acid.

Nutritional yeast is an excellent source.16

Vitamin B12 Vitamin B12 is found almost exclusively in animal tissues, including foods like beef and beef liver, lamb, snapper, venison, salmon, shrimp, scallops, poultry, eggs, and dairy products.

The few plant foods that are sources of B12 are actually B12 analogs that block the uptake of true B12.

Also consider limiting sugar and eating fermented foods.

The entire B group vitamin series is produced within your gut, assuming you have healthy gut flora.

Eating real food, ideally organic, along with fermented foods will provide your microbiome with important fiber and beneficial bacteria to help optimize your internal vitamin B production.

Nutritional yeast is also high in B12, and is highly recommended for vegetarians and vegans.

One serving (2 tbsp) provides nearly 8 micrograms (mcg) of natural vitamin B12.17

Sublingual (under-the-tongue) fine mist spray or vitamin B12 injections are also effective, as they allow the large B12 molecule to be absorbed directly into your bloodstream.

Vitamin C Sweet peppers, chili peppers, Brussel sprouts, broccoli, artichoke, sweet potato, tomato, cauliflower, kale, papaya, strawberries, oranges, kiwi, grapefruit, cantaloupe, and lemon.

To boost your intake of fruits and vegetables, consider juicing. As an alternative, you can also make fermented vegetables at home.

The vitamin C in sauerkraut (fermented cabbage) is about six times higher than in the same helping of unfermented cabbage, so it’s an excellent way to boost your vitamin C intake.

The most effective form of oral vitamin C is liposomal vitamin C.

It’s not associated with many of the complications of traditional vitamin C or ascorbic acid (such as gastrointestinal distress), which will allow you to achieve higher intracellular concentrations.

You can expect a significant rise in plasma vitamin C concentration at doses between 30 and 100 mg/day.

Taking vitamin C frequently throughout the day is more effective than taking one large dose once a day.

Vitamin D Vitamin D is created naturally when your skin is exposed to sunshine.

While you can get some vitamin D from grass-fed meats and other whole foods and fortified foods, sun exposure is an ideal primary source.

When taking supplemental vitamin D, also be sure to increase your intake of vitamin K2 and magnesium, either from food or a supplement.


Sources and References

1 Journal of Nursing Scholarship February 15, 2016 DOI: 10.1111/jnu.12201

2 American Journal of Clinical Nutrition July 2015: 102(1); 215-221

3 PLoS ONE 5(9): e12244.

4 PNAS 2013 Jun 4;110(23):9523-8

5 Neurology. 2010 Oct 19;75(16):1408-14.

6 Be Brain Fit, Brain Vitamins

7 Psychology Today November 20, 2015

8 Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry 2009 Jul;80(7):722-9

9 Vitamin D Council, Cognitive Impairment

10 Mercola.com, Omega-3 Oils

11 Worlds Healthiest Foods, Vitamin B6

12 Healthalisciousness.com, Top 10 Foods High in Vitamin B6

13, 17 Self Nutrition Data, Nutritional Yeast

14 Fat Free Vegan Kitchen, Nutritional Yeast

15 Worlds Healthiest Foods, Folate

16 Chalkboard, Nutritional Yeast

Source: The Importance of B Vitamins for Brain Health and Combating Dementia

Many of the participants in that study no longer met the criteria for FM after it: that’s a criteria for success that few FM studies are willing to even contemplate using.The study also required the surgical implantation of a vagus nerve stimulator. That’s an option – running somewhere around 30-40K – that’s available to few. Thankfully non-invasive vagus nerve stimulators worn on the ear have and are being developed.See “Reborn” – Reversing Fibromyalgia with Vagus Nerve StimulationWhen a recent three part review did an overview of our understanding of what the vagus nerve does, how vagus nerve stimulation works and how it effective it is, I jumped on it. This blog took the following papers as a foundation. Vagus Nerve and Vagus Nerve Stimulation, a Comprehensive Review: Part I. Yuan H, Silberstein SD. Headache. 2015 Sep 14. doi: 10.1111/head.12647. [Epub ahead of print] Review. Vagus Nerve and Vagus Nerve Stimulation, a Comprehensive Review: Part II. Yuan H, Silberstein SD. Headache. 2015 Sep 18. doi: 10.1111/head.12650. [Epub ahead of print] Review. Vagus Nerve and Vagus Nerve Stimulation, a Comprehensive Review: Part III. Yuan H, Silberstein SD. Headache. 2015 Sep 14. doi: 10.1111/head.12649. [Epub ahead of print] Review.Besides the fibromyalgia study, the vagus nerve is of particular interest in both fibromyalgia and chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) because of the role it plays in regulating the autonomic nervous and immune systems providing sensory and other information to the brain and Michael Van Elzakker’s Vagus Nerve Hypothesis – Van Elzakker suspects small infections in or around the vagus nerve could be triggering it to tell the brain to produce flu-like symptoms in people with chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS). A pilot study to assess that possibility is underway now.The Wanderer Called the wanderer, the vagus nerve is the longest “cranial nerve” (a nerve that emanates from the head) in the body. Attaching at the medulla at the bottom of the brainstem, the many fingers of the vagus nerve reach down our torso to infiltrate most of our organs. The extensive network it forms – it’s the largest neural network in the body – provides a pathway through which information is sent to the brain regarding the status of our organs.Vagus nerves densely innervate every ‘sensing area’ of the body with a particular focus on the walls of the blood vessels throughout the body and the digestive system. The vagus nerve regulates our heart and breathing rates, blood pressure and blood flow via receptors in the blood vessels that monitor O2, CO2, and pH levels in the blood and blood pressure.Autonomic-nervous-systemIn the gut the vagus nerve controls gut movements (motility), secretions, inflammatory responses, the integrity of the gut lining and even appetite. Reflexive movements like coughing, gagging and vomiting are all controlled by the vagus nerve.If a pathogen is present the vagus nerve will let your brain know that. If you’ve cut your finger, are feeling hot or cold, or have just eaten something – the vagus nerve will let your brain know that.Ultimately information on touch, heat/cold, pain and chemical, metabolic, and hormonal operations of the organs is all transmitted via the vagus nerve to the brain. It effects the functioning of every system – from the immune to endocrine to the hormonal system – in our body.Immune Regulator The last ten or twenty years have revealed that the vagus nerve (VN) is a significant immune system regulator. The cholinergic anti-inflammatory immune response it regulates mostly takes place in the spleen.Think of the spleen as an enormous lymph node which dictates much of the innate or early immune response. Besides filtering blood the spleen synthesizes antibodies, removes bacteria and plays host to half the monocytes found in the body. These monocytes – which turn into dendritic cells and macrophages play a key role in the innate or early immune response, which plays a key role in producing many inflammatory states.The cholinergic anti-inflammatory response has been shown to reduce the levels of a wide variety of inflammatory cytokines. Studies are underway to assess the ability of VNS to reduce inflammation in diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and inflammatory bowel disease.Autonomic Nervous System Regulator The vagus nerve’s effects on autonomic nervous system functioning could easily account for the benefits thus far seen in fibromyalgia and other pain disorders. The vagus nerve boosts the activity of the parasympathetic nervous system (rest and digest) and reduces sympathetic nervous system (fight or flight) system.Reduced heart rate variability findings suggest that reduced parasympthetic nervous system functioning is present in both ME/CFS and FM. Reduced HRV has been associated with increased sympathetic nervous system activity, pain and sleep and cognitive problems in ME/CFS and/or FM.Because VNS increases heart rate variability it’s possible tha

Source: Vagus Nerve Stimulation, Fibromyalgia and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (ME/CFS)

Symptoms of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth, according to the SIBO Center for Digestive Health, include:

Bloating

Belching

Cramps

Constipation

Diarrhea

Heartburn (reflux or GERD)

Nausea

Food sensitivities

Headaches

Joint pain

Fatigue

Skin rashes

Respiratory symptoms (such as asthma)

Mood symptoms (such as depression)

Brain symptoms (such as autism)

Eczema

Steatorrhea (fatty stools)

Iron deficiency anemia

Flatulence

Abdominal pain

Vitamin B12 deficiency

 

Research from the University of Southern California published in the Journal of the American Medical Association indicated that the symptoms of SIBO were nearly universal to those symptoms associated with irritable bowel syndrome.

Source: 21 Symptoms of Small Intestinal Bacterial Overgrowth

Relief from Common Digestive Distress

When colonic bacteria move out of the colon and into the small intestine, a condition called small intestinal bacterial overgrowth, develops.30 Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth is associated with carbohydrate malabsorption and may also result in intestinal inflammation. This inflammatory response can then cause the normally tight intestinal barrier to leak, permitting bacteria and toxins to enter the bloodstream, where they may contribute to symptoms of food allergy and food sensitivity.10-12

Source: Relief from Common Digestive Distress

By Alicia Nadil

Do you remember how easy it was in youth to consume a high-calorie meal and suffer no unpleasant aftereffects?

One reason we internally managed foods so easily back in those days were the massive amounts of digestive juices we produced that efficiently broke down foods for healthy absorption.

Contrast this to what many adults take after meals, such as over-the-counter drugs like Alka-Seltzer® and Pepto-Bismol® to relieve gas, bloating, cramping, and other digestive problems. These drugs can provide temporary relief, but they don’t treat the underlying cause of the problem.

Over-the-counter drugs are a huge business.1,2 In the United States alone, people with digestive discomfort spend $9.5 billion on over-the-counter stomach remedies, and studies show that people taking such medications commonly report not thinking that their problem was serious enough to seek medical attention.2-4

A national survey in 2013 demonstrated that 72% of respondents experienced one or more symptoms such as diarrhea, gas, bloating, stomach pain, frequent bowel movements, unexplained weight loss, or nonspecific abdominal discomfort and 74% of those surveyed reported living with their symptoms for more than six months.4

Relief from Common Digestive Distress

Unfortunately, over-the-counter drugs could be masking a more serious issue.

After-meal abdominal symptoms often represent poor digestion of complex foods, causing one to be unable to fully absorb nutrients needed for optimal health. This can lead to chronic low-level malnutrition and/or stomach distress after most meals.5,6

A common cause of these widespread digestive problems is the age-related decline of active enzymes that help break down foods into absorbable nutrients.7-9

A second major cause of abdominal symptoms in older adults is the chronic imbalance of the trillions of beneficial organisms that populate our gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Such disturbances contribute to nutrient malabsorption, while also producing inflammation that can weaken the intestinal barrier and allow bacteria and toxins into the circulation where they may aggravate food allergies and sensitivities.10-13

Fortunately, studies show that it is possible to address both of these underlying causes of gastro-intestinal distresses. By properly supplementing with digestive enzymes and probiotics, healthy older adults can take meaningful steps to maintain good digestive health. The result can be better digestion, less abdominal stress, and greater retention of nutrients.

Why Digestive Enzymes Are so Important

In order for the food we eat to be absorbed into our bloodstream, the actions of powerful enzymes are required to break down the food in order to extract vital nutrients. Each of the three major food groups—carbohydrates, proteins, and fats—must be broken down by specific enzymes before being absorbed by cells in the digestive tract.

When the digestive tract is in good working order, food is almost completely broken down by the time it reaches the end of our small intestine, leaving few undigested food molecules to pass into the colon. The result is a well-nourished body that continuously renews itself, and a comfortable sensation following a meal.

With age, the production of normal digestive enzymes begins to fall off, leaving significant amounts of all three major food groups (fats, proteins, and carbohydrates) to pass undigested into the large intestine, or colon.8,9,14

This can lead to bloating, gas, diarrhea, and cramping—and even worse, can contribute to the malnutrition that threatens older people as a result of lost appetite and changes in muscle and fat stores.15,16 That’s why the proper complement of healthy enzymes is crucial not just for healthy digestion—but for good health in general.

What You Need to Know
Enzymes and Probiotics for Healthy Digestion

Enzymes and Probiotics for Healthy Digestion

  • Research indicates over 70% of Americans report feeling discomfort, bloating, gas, cramps, or urgency to defecate following a meal.
  • This problem is especially prevalent in older adults, whose natural production of digestive enzymes dwindles with age.
  • Loss of normal balance of beneficial gastrointestinal microbes further exacerbates symptoms.
  • Supplementation with digestive enzymes that break down starches, protein, fats, and fiber is a proven method to reduce symptoms and improve nutritional status.
  • Supplementation with B. coagulans, a beneficial probiotic microbe, can further improve comfort and reduce symptoms by balancing your population of intestinal organisms.
  • If you suffer from any degree of discomfort following what should be a pleasant and fulfilling meal, it’s time to add digestive enzymes and sustainable probiotic bacteria to your regimen.

Improving Digestive Comfort and Function

A natural solution to declining levels of digestive enzymes is to supplement with digestive enzymes that cover the major needs of the body to break down all classes of food, including starch, proteins, fats, cellulose, and milk.

For optimal digestion, it is important to include these major digestive enzymes:

  • Amylase to break down starch and short sugar chains called oligosaccharides,
  • Protease to help break down proteins,
  • Lipase to break down fats,
  • Cellulase to break down the indigestible polysaccharide in dietary cellulose, and
  • Lactase to break down lactose (milk sugar).
Improving Digestive Comfort and Function

People suffering from pancreatic insufficiency as a result of cystic fibrosis, pancreatic surgery, or trauma have long used supplemental digestive enzymes.17 But researchers have recognized that the addition of digestive enzymes is beneficial to healthy individuals as well.

In various studies, each of these major enzymes has shown specific benefits in digesting food.

Animal studies have repeatedly demonstrated that when supplemental digestive enzymes are added to the normal food supply, they can significantly improve digestibility of dietary foods, improve nutrient absorption, reduce gas production, and, in at least one case, reduce food intake, as a result of improved nutritional status.5,18,19 Furthermore, in stressed or aged animals, a mix of pancreatic digestive enzymes improved muscle wasting in addition to the other benefits.5

Human studies are now revealing similarly impressive results for supplemental digestive enzymes. In a study of adults with chronic pancreatic insufficiency, in which the subjects were unable to fully digest and absorb fats and proteins, researchers tested two pancreatic enzyme replacement products. A supplement with bromelain proved significantly more effective at improving both protein and fat digestion and absorption.20

Pancreatic lipase (the fat-digesting enzyme) has been routinely used for years in people with pancreatic insufficiency to assist with digestion.21 A study in healthy volunteers demonstrated that the use of this enzyme could be beneficial in others as well.

For the study, subjects ate 185 grams (about 6 ounces) of cookies containing 1,196 calories and 72 grams (about 2.5 ounces) of fat, along with capsules of lipase or a placebo.22 They were then followed for up to 17 hours. Compared to placebo patients, patients supplemented with lipase showed significant reductions in bloating over the entire period, with significant reductions in bloating, gas, and fullness later in the day.

Lactase , the enzyme that breaks down lactose, or “milk sugar,” is sharply reduced in adults from everywhere except Northern Europe, and both human and animal studies demonstrate that this lactase deficiency increases with advancing age.8,23 Deficiency of lactase produces a condition known as lactose intolerance, characterized by cramps, bloating, gas, and often diarrhea following consumption of milk products. Lactose intolerance is known to be a significant problem in the elderly, and can lead to insufficient calcium intake, resulting in greater risks of osteoporosis and subsequent fractures.9,24,25 Thus, it is especially important in older adults to be capable of comfortably consuming milk products to help avoid osteoporosis.

Studies show that supplementation with lactase produces a significant reduction in excretion of hydrogen in the breath (a marker of improved lactose digestion), while also significantly reducing symptoms of abdominal cramping, belching, flatulence, bloating, and diarrhea.26

Consuming these specific digestive enzymes would provide comprehensive assistance to one’s ability to digest foods in a more youthful and tolerant fashion—and would also help relieve discomforts after eating, as well as improve your overall nutritional status.

The Five Most Prevalent Digestive Enzymes
The Five Most Prevalent Digestive Enzymes

Each major food group has a specific type of enzyme responsible for its breakdown. Deficiency in any of these enzymes can lead to a wide range of common intestinal troubles. There are five major digestive enzymes that need to be at healthy levels for the digestion of food without painful or embarrassing side effects. These include amylase, protease, lipase, cellulose, and lactase.

Carbohydrates and starches are digested by the enzyme amylase. A deficiency in amylases causes undigested carbohydrate molecules to pass on to the colon, where gut organisms break them down, literally fermenting them to produce carbon dioxide and water that lead to cramping, flatulence, and diarrhea.41,42,43

Proteins are digested by the protease enzymes. A deficiency in proteases leaves protein molecules or fragments undigested. Again, these pass on to the colon, in this case giving rise to a host of unpleasant-smelling and potentially toxic molecules.44-47 Undigested protein in the colon has also been associated with colon cancer initiation, though the exact mechanisms are still under investigation.48

Fats are digested by the lipase enzymes. A deficiency in lipases leaves long-chain fats undigested. Undigested fats cannot be absorbed anywhere in the body and are typically passed on through the GI tract to produce greasy, fatty stools, cramping, and even malnutrition when fat-soluble vitamins are lost.17

Though several different digestive system organs produce some digestive enzymes, the pancreas makes all three of these essential digestive enzymes.49 Loss of pancreatic function is therefore a common cause of after-meal indigestion and other symptoms. Pancreatic insufficiency was long thought to be found only in patients with disorders of the pancreas itself, such as cystic fibrosis, pancreatitis, or pancreatic tumors. However, it is now recognized as being associated with aging.9,17,50,51 One recent study found pancreatic insufficiency in more than 7% of a large group of patients with general abdominal pain and discomfort.32

Cellulase is the enzyme that breaks down cellulose, the indigestible polysaccharide in dietary fiber.52 Fiber is increasingly recognized as vital for healthy digestion because, though humans cannot break it down, it feeds the beneficial organisms in our colons, which use it to produce beneficial short-chain fatty acids that nourish our colonic cells and help to prevent cancer.53 But, precisely because we cannot digest fiber ourselves, it can produce symptoms of bloating, flatulence, diarrhea, and constipation when broken down by our intestinal tenants.54

Lastly, lactase is the enzyme that breaks down milk sugar (lactose).55 A deficiency in lactase can prevent the body from breaking down lactose, leading to lactose intolerance, which can lead to abdominal cramping, belching, flatulence, diarrhea, and bloating.56

Intestinal Microbes

In addition to having reduced levels of digestive enzymes, another cause of digestive malfunction and after-meal discomfort occurs when the normal microbial populations become imbalanced.27

The body relies heavily on the teeming communities of bacteria that live in the large intestine, or colon. Like any community, this group of microbes, collectively known as the intestinal microbiome, functions best when its occupants are richly diverse and respect one another’s boundaries. If those properties are not present, symptoms of indigestion may arise.28,29

When colonic bacteria move out of the colon and into the small intestine, a condition called small intestinal bacterial overgrowth, develops.30 Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth is associated with carbohydrate malabsorption and may also result in intestinal inflammation. This inflammatory response can then cause the normally tight intestinal barrier to leak, permitting bacteria and toxins to enter the bloodstream, where they may contribute to symptoms of food allergy and food sensitivity.10-12

A related condition is intestinal dysbiosis, in which the natural balance of beneficial bacteria living in the gut becomes disturbed.31 This is a huge and growing area of medical research, as researchers learn that it does not take a true pathogen (disease-causing organism) to produce abdominal symptoms and increase the risk for a host of life-shortening disorders.

In fact, simply having the wrong mix of bacteria in your intestines can set the stage for obesity, cardiovascular disease, and many other chronic, age-associated conditions.32,33 Studies show that as many as 73% of people with abdominal complaints have some form of dysbiosis.32

In addition to causing GI discomfort and related symptoms, all of these problems can contribute to malnutrition, a serious and growing problem in older adults—one that exacerbates their frailty and vulnerability to falls, fractures, and infections.34

Fortunately, supplementing with probiotic bacteria can help alleviate the digestive issues that can occur as a result of microbial imbalance.

Easing Abdominal Symptoms with Probiotic Bacteria

Beneficial bacteria are essential for maintaining proper balance among the trillions of organisms living in the intestines. Low growth of the “good guys” can lead to overgrowth and imbalance of organisms less directly beneficial (and some directly harmful) to the body’s health.

Studies show that probiotic organisms (which are cultures of living beneficial bacteria) can help reduce abdominal symptoms and promote healthy intestinal function by promoting their own and other beneficial organisms’ growth and suppressing that of less useful bacteria.35,36

The MTCC 5856 strain of Bacillus coagulans (formerly known as Lactobacillus sporogenes) is especially beneficial because it is coated in a tough outer layer that resists digestion in the stomach and small intestine.35,37 This allows it to be delivered intact to the large intestine, where it can then “hatch” out to set up new colonies in a sustainable fashion.35,37,38

It takes an estimated four hours from ingestion to germination in the intestine. However, over time, it is gradually excreted and needs to be replenished with fresh supplementation.36,37

Once established, B. coagulans produces lactic acid, which is a useful chemical that helps suppress the growth of disease-causing bacteria and promotes its own growth.35,37,38 Lactic acid bacteria are commonly used as “starter cultures,” in fermented foods such as yogurt, kimchi, sauerkraut, kefir, sourdough bread, pickles, and many other healthful foods.35 Furthermore, production of lactic acid is the result of the presence of lactase, the digestive enzyme that breaks down lactose, and is missing in so many adults.37,39

B. coagulans also produces bacteriocins, which are compounds that help maintain a healthy balance of bacteria by limiting the growth of less desirable bacteria.35,37

Human Studies

Human Studies

The value of this resilient B. coagulans strain of bacteria has been shown in studies of people with gastrointestinal issues, such as chronic constipation, chronic diarrhea, and irritable bowel syndrome.

A study of people with chronic constipation showed that 70% of subjects had improvement in abdominal distension and normalization of stools following supplementation with 300 to 750 million spores of B. coagulans per day for up to 10 days.37

A study of patients with acute or chronic diarrhea demonstrated, in a randomized fashion, that probiotic supplementation with either B. coagulans or another commonly used organism called Bifidobacterium longum produced good relief from symptoms.

Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common and difficult-to-treat condition that can cause diarrhea and constipation, along with significant abdominal discomfort, gas, and bloating. In a multi-center, randomized, double-blind controlled study of IBS patients, daily supplementation with tablets containing 2 billion spores of B. coagulans was found to significantly reduce symptom scores, abdominal discomfort scores, stool quality, and physicians’ overall assessment scores.40 Additionally, the patients receiving the probiotic bacteria showed improvement in bloating, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, and stool frequency, compared with control subjects.

Summary

The digestive tract changes with age. The amounts of digestive enzymes the body produces decline over time, leaving undigested food molecules free to pass into the colon where they ferment and produce noxious gas, bloating, cramping, and diarrhea.

Adding to this challenge, the body’s normally helpful tenants, the microbes living in the colon, become disruptive and imbalanced, potentially invading the small intestine where they can produce inflammation and poor digestion.

In human studies, supplemental digestive enzymes have provided increased digestive comfort and reduction in common symptoms of indigestion. And supplementation with probiotic B. coagulans bacteria not only boosts the population of good bacteria, but also results in production of natural bacterial compounds that suppress less beneficial, or even overtly harmful, bacteria. These changes have been demonstrated to improve after-meal comfort while restoring the natural balance of organisms in the intestinal tract.

For those troubled by bloating, cramps, gas, loose stools, or other digestive symptoms following a normal meal, restoring normal enzymes and intestinal microbial population could help alleviate after-meal distress.

If you have any questions on the scientific content of this article, please call a Life Extension® Health Advisor at 1-866-864-3027.

References

  1. Taylor J, Landry E, Lalonde L, Tsuyuki RT. Results of a national survey on over-the-counter medicines, Part 1: Pharmacist opinion on current scheduling status. Can Pharm J (Ott). 2012; 145(1):40-4.
  2. Sheen CL, Colin-Jones DG. Review article: over-the-counter drugs and the gastrointestinal tract. Alimen Pharmacol Ther. 2001;15(9):1263-70.
  3. Van Vliet EP, Kuipers EJ, Steyerberg EW, Siersema PD. Users and utilization patterns of over-the-counter acid inhibitors and antacids in The Netherlands. Scand J Gastroenterol. 2008;43(6):662-8.
  4. Available at: http://goo.gl/kyZrkD. Accessed August 6, 2013.
  5. Farges MC, Vasson MP, Davot P, et al. Supplementation of oral nutrition with pancreatic enzymes improves the nutritional status of aged endotoxemic rats. Nutrition. 1996;12(3):189-94.
  6. Available at: http://goo.gl/JttyqX. 2008. Accessed August 6, 2013.
  7. Di Stefano M, Veneto G, Malservisi S, Strocchi A, Corazza GR. Lactose malabsorption and intolerance in the elderly. Scand J Gastroenterol. 2001;36(12):1274-8.
  8. Baum BJ, Levine RL, Kuyatt BL, Sogin DB. Rat parotid gland amylase: evidence for alterations in an exocrine protein with increased age. Mech Aging Dev. 1982;19(1):27-35.
  9. Laugier R, Bernard JP, Berthezene P, Dupuy P. Changes in pancreatic exocrine secretion with age: pancreatic exocrine secretion does decrease in the elderly. Digestion. 1991;50(3-4):202-11.
  10. Bures J, Cyrany J, Kohoutova D, et al. Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth syndrome. World J Gastroenterol. 2010;16(24):2978-90.
  11. Kirsch M. Bacterial overgrowth. Am J Gastroenterol. 1990;85(3):231-7.
  12. Lin HC. Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth: a framework for understanding irritable bowel syndrome. JAMA. 2004;292(7):852-8.
  13. Vitetta L, Manuel R, Zhou JY, Linnane AW, Hall S, Coulson S. The overarching influence of the gut microbiome on end-organ function: the role of live probiotic cultures. Pharmaceuticals (Basel). 2014;7(9):954-89.
  14. Vellas B, Balas D, Moreau J, et al. Exocrine pancreatic secretion in the elderly. Int J Pancreatol. 1988;3(6):497-502.
  15. Fieker A, Philpott J, Armand M. Enzyme replacement therapy for pancreatic insufficiency: present and future. Clin Exp Gastroenterol. 2011;4:55-73.
  16. Friess H, Michalski CW. Diagnosing exocrine pancreatic insufficiency after surgery: when and which patients to treat. HPB (Oxford). 2009;11 Suppl 3:7-10.
  17. Dominguez-Muñoz JE. Pancreatic enzyme therapy for pancreatic exocrine insufficiency. Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2011;7(6):401-3.
  18. Eun JS, Beauchemin KA. Effects of a proteolytic feed enzyme on intake, digestion, ruminal fermentation, and milk production. J Dairy Sci. 2005;88(6):2140-53.
  19. Omogbenigun FO, Nyachoti CM, Slominski BA. Dietary supplementation with multienzyme preparations improves nutrient utilization and growth performance in weaned pigs. J Anim Sci. 2004;82(4):1053-61.
  20. Knill-Jones RP, Pearce H, Batten J, Williams R. Comparative trial of Nutrizym in chronic pancreatic insufficiency. BMJ. 1970;4(5726):21-4.
  21. Griffin SM, Alderson D, Farndon JR. Acid resistant lipase as replacement therapy in chronic pancreatic exocrine insufficiency: a study in dogs. Gut. 1989;30(7):1012-5.
  22. Suarez F, Levitt MD, Adshead J, Barkin JS. Pancreatic supplements reduce symptomatic response of healthy subjects to a high fat meal. Dig Dis Sci. 1999;44(7):1317-21.
  23. Misselwitz B, Pohl D, Fruhauf H, Fried M, Vavricka SR, Fox M. Lactose malabsorption and intolerance: pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment. United European Gastroenterol J. 2013;1(3):151-9.
  24. Kuhn RJ, Gelrud A, Munck A, Caras S. CREON (Pancrelipase Delayed-Release Capsules) for the treatment of exocrine pancreatic insufficiency. Adv Ther. 2010;27(12):895-916.
  25. Park S, Johnson MA. What is an adequate dose of oral vitamin B12 in older people with poor vitamin B12 status? Nutr Rev. 2006;64(8):373-8.
  26. Sanders SW, Tolman KG, Reitberg DP. Effect of a single dose of lactase on symptoms and expired hydrogen after lactose challenge in lactose-intolerant subjects. Clin Pharm. 1992;11(6):533-8.
  27. Brown K, DeCoffe D, Molcan E, Gibson DL. Diet-induced dysbiosis of the intestinal microbiota and the effects on immunity and disease. Nutrients. 2012;4(8):1095-1119.
  28. De Vos WM, de Vos EA. Role of the intestinal microbiome in health and disease: from correlation to causation. Nutr Rev. 2012;70 Suppl 1:S45-56.
  29. Semova I, Carten JD, Stombaugh J, et al. Microbiota regulate intestinal absorption and metabolism of fatty acids in the zebrafish. Cell Host Microbe. 2012;12(3):277-88.
  30. Rana SV, Malik A. Hydrogen breath tests in gastrointestinal diseases. Indian J Clin Biochem. 2014;29(4):398-405.
  31. Hawrelak JA, Myers SP. The causes of intestinal dysbiosis: a review. Alt Med J. 2004;9(2):180-97.
  32. Goepp J, Fowler E, McBride T, Landis D. Frequency of abnormal fecal biomarkers in irritable bowel syndrome. Glob Adv Health Med. 2014;3(3):9-15.
  33. Zhang YJ, Li S, Gan RY, Zhou T, Xu DP, Li HB. Impacts of gut bacteria on human health and diseases. Int J Mol Sci. 2015;16(4):7493-519.
  34. Saffrey MJ. Aging of the mammalian gastrointestinal tract: a complex organ system. Age. 2014;36(3):9603.
  35. Available at: http://goo.gl/uAE8Lw. Accessed August 6, 2013.
  36. Majeed M, Prakash L. Majeed M, Prakash, L. Probiotics for health and wellbeing: Sabinsa Corporation;2007.
  37. AMR. Lactobacillus sporogenes. Alt Med Rev. 2002;7(4):340-2.
  38. Sabinsa. LactoSpore: Frequently Asked Questions. 2012.
  39. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK44619/. Accessed August 6, 2015.
  40. Sivakumar A. A randomized, double blind, parallel group, placebo controlled study to evaluate the safety and efficacy of Lactospore(Bacillus coagulans MTCC 5856) in patients with diarrhea predominant irritable bowel syndrome: Sami Labs Limited; 2014. 2014.
  41. Barrett JS. Extending our knowledge of fermentable, short-chain carbohydrates for managing gastrointestinal symptoms. Nutr Clin Pract. 2013;28(3):300-6.
  42. Sjolund K, Haggmark A, Ihse I, Skude G, Karnstrom U, Wikander M. Selective deficiency of pancreatic amylase. Gut. 1991;32(5):546-8.
  43. Gudmand-Hoyer E. The clinical significance of disaccharide maldigestion. Am J Clin Nutr. 1994;59(3 Suppl):735S-41S.
  44. Available at: http://goo.gl/XYnsXm. ND. Accessed August 6, 2013.
  45. Larque E, Sabater-Molina M, Zamora S. Biological significance of dietary polyamines. Nutrition. 2007;23(1):87-95.
  46. Prester L. Biogenic amines in fish, fish products and shellfish: a review. Food Addit Contam. 2011;28(11):1547-60.
  47. Macfarlane GT, Cummings JH, Allison C. Protein degradation by human intestinal bacteria. J Gen Microbiol. 1986;132(6):1647-56.
  48. Kim E, Coelho D, Blachier F. Review of the association between meat consumption and risk of colorectal cancer. Nutr Res. 2013;33(12):983-94.
  49. Iovanna J, Giorgi D, Dagorn JC. Newly synthesized amylase, lipase and serine proteases are transported at different rates in rat pancreas. Digestion. 1986;34(3):178-84.
  50. Lindkvist B. Diagnosis and treatment of pancreatic exocrine insufficiency. WJG. 2013;19(42):7258-66.
  51. Pongprasobchai S. Maldigestion from pancreatic exocrine insufficiency. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2013;28 Suppl 4:99-102.
  52. Carle-Urioste JC, Escobar-Vera J, El-Gogary S, et al. Cellulase induction in Trichoderma reesei by cellulose requires its own basal expression. J Bio Chem. 1997;272(15):10169-74.
  53. Goncalves P, Martel F. Butyrate and colorectal cancer: the role of butyrate transport. Curr Drub Metab. 2013;14(9):994-1008.
  54. Eswaran S, Muir J, Chey WD. Fiber and functional gastrointestinal disorders. Am J Gastroenterol. 2013;108(5):718-27.
  55. Fraissl L, Leitner R, Missbichler A. Novel formulation of neutral lactase improves digestion of dairy products in case of lactose intolerance. Clin Transl Allergy. 2011;1(Suppl 1):P104.
  56. Swagerty DL, Jr., Walling AD, Klein RM. Lactose intolerance. Am Fam Physician 2002;65(9):1845-50.

Source: Relief from Common Digestive Distress – Life Extension

For decades, neuroscientists and physicians have tried to get to the bottom of the age-old mystery of post-traumatic stress disorder, to explain why only some people are vulnerable and why they experience so many symptoms and so much disability.

All experts in the field now agree that PTSD indeed has its roots in very real, physical processes within the brain — and not in some sort of psychological “weakness.” But no clear consensus has emerged about what exactly has gone “wrong” in the brain.

In a Perspective article published this week in Neuron, a pair of University of Michigan Medical School professors — who have studied PTSD from many angles for many years — put forth a theory of PTSD that draws from and integrates decades of prior research. They hope to stimulate interest in the theory and invite others in the field to test it.

The bottom line, they say, is that people with PTSD appear to suffer from disrupted context processing. That’s a core brain function that allows people and animals to recognize that a particular stimulus may require different responses depending on the context in which it is encountered. It’s what allows us to call upon the “right” emotional or physical response to the current encounter.

A simple example, they write, is recognizing that a mountain lion seen in the zoo does not require a fear or “flight” response, while the same lion unexpectedly encountered in the backyard probably does.

For someone with PTSD, a stimulus associated with the trauma they previously experienced — such as a loud noise or a particular smell — triggers a fear response even when the context is very safe. That’s why they react even if the noise came from the front door being slammed, or the smell comes from dinner being accidentally burned on the stove.

Context processing involves a brain region called the hippocampus, and its connections to two other regions called the prefrontal cortex and the amygdala. Research has shown that activity in these brain areas is disrupted in PTSD patients. The U-M team thinks their theory can unify wide-ranging evidence by showing how a disruption in this circuit can interfere with context processing and can explain most of the symptoms and much of the biology of PTSD.

“We hope to put some order to all the information that’s been gathered about PTSD from studies of human patients, and of animal models of the condition,” says Israel Liberzon, M.D., a professor of psychiatry at U-M and a researcher at the VA Ann Arbor Healthcare System who also treats veterans with PTSD. “We hope to create a testable hypothesis, which isn’t as common in mental health research as it should be. If this hypothesis proves true, maybe we can unravel some of the underlying pathophysiological processes, and offer better treatments.”

Liberzon and his colleague, James Abelson, M.D., Ph.D., describe in their piece models of PTSD that have emerged in recent years, and lay out the evidence for each. The problem, they say, is that none of these models sufficiently explains the various symptoms seen in patients, nor all of the complex neurobiological changes seen in PTSD and in animal models of this disorder.

The first model, abnormal fear learning, is rooted in the amygdala — the brain’s ‘fight or flight’ center that focuses on response to threats or safe environments. This model emerged from work on fear conditioning, fear extinction and fear generalization.

The second, exaggerated threat detection, is rooted in the brain regions that figure out what signals from the environment are “salient,” or important to take note of and react to. This model focuses on vigilance and disproportionate responses to perceived threats.

The third, involving executive function and regulation of emotions, is mainly rooted in the prefrontal cortex — the brain’s center for keeping emotions in check and planning or switching between tasks.

By focusing only on the evidence bolstering one of these theories, researchers may be “searching under the streetlight,” says Liberzon. “But if we look at all of it in the light of context processing disruption, we can explain why different teams have seen different things. They’re not mutually exclusive.”

The main thing, says Liberzon, is that “context is not only information about your surroundings — it’s pulling out the correct emotion and memories for the context you are in.”

A deficit in context processing would lead PTSD patients to feel “unmoored” from the world around them, unable to shape their responses to fit their current contexts. Instead, their brains would impose an “internalized context” — one that always expects danger — on every situation.

This type of deficit, arising in the brain from a combination of genetics and life experiences, may create vulnerability to PTSD in the first place, they say. After trauma, this would generate symptoms of hypervigilance, sleeplessness, intrusive thoughts and dreams, and inappropriate emotional and physical outbursts.

Liberzon and Abelson think that testing the context processing theory will enhance understanding of PTSD, even if all of its details are not verified. They hope the PTSD community will help them pursue the needed research, in PTSD patients and in animal models. They put forth specific ideas in the Neuron paper to encourage that, and are embarking on such research themselves.

The U-M/VA team is currently recruiting people with PTSD — whether veterans or not — for studies involving brain imaging and other tests.

In the meantime, they note that there is a growing set of therapeutic tools that can help patients with PTSD, such as cognitive behavioral therapy mindfulness training and pharmacological approaches. These may work by helping to anchor PTSD patients in their current environment, and may prove more effective as researchers learn how to specifically strengthen context processing capacities in the brain.

Source: What’s really going on in PTSD brains? Experts suggest new theory — ScienceDaily

“I keep seeing my neighbor’s pool in winter, just an empty bowl of dusty blue tiles. Imagine standing in the middle of that, when suddenly, the pool fills up. In an instant, you’re drowning.”

I want to explain a little understood mental illness: borderline personality disorder, or BPD.

Between 1 and 2 percent of people suffer from BPD. Women are up to three times more likely to have it than men. It is often connected to (or misdiagnosed as) another mental illnesses, which means it can get lost in other, bigger discussions. It can blend in with depression, anxiety, and bipolar disorder. It might be genetic, or it may result from trauma. It might also be both, or neither.

It is hard to offer a simple medical definition of BPD, but I’ve heard it brilliantly summed up as “chronic irrationality.” Think severe mood swings, impulsivity, instability, and a whole lot of explosive anger.

BPD feels like floating above a dinner party, above the chitchat and laughter, looking down at the smiling people who understand one another, and thinking: Why not me?

It sends you into spirals of self-doubt and hatred. It makes you feel like a tangled slinky, forever bumping inelegantly down a flight of stairs. You know something within you is twisted, and even once you’re told what, you’re left wondering why.

There’s always this stifling sense of isolation. I say “sense” because I can be surrounded by the most supportive friends and still think they’re out to get me, or mocking me behind my back. The tragedy of BPD is that it runs on such solipsism that it inverts me as a person. I become toxically narcissistic—self-hating to the point where I irrationally project my emotional insecurities onto those around me.

It almost goes without saying that it’s hard to maintain relationships. The combination of feeling absolutely nothing while flinching at everything doesn’t make for a whole lot of fun. BPD makes me lash out, allowing some of the cruelest things to tumble from my mouth. And believe me, there are only so many times loved ones will forgive a lack of control.

People often discuss BPD by describing an “emptiness.” For me, it’s more an oscillation between the impossibly empty and the impossibly full. I keep seeing my neighbor’s pool in winter, just an empty bowl of dusty blue tiles. Imagine standing in the middle of that, when suddenly the pool fills up. In an instant, you’re drowning. People describe BPD like that: a flip. A big switch going off in an invisible instant.

I think it’s this erratic oscillation that makes BPD so hard to communicate—particularly to those who are close. Because on the surface it looks like I’m just being an ornery prick. Like all mental illness, it’s best treated with patience and empathy. And unfortunately, like depression or hypomania, it places the onus on people who are not necessarily in a position to help or understand, no matter how much they may care for you. In a relationship, BPD can leave both parties feeling isolated.

It brings out my mean streak something shocking. I’ve always had a devilish way with words, particularly nasty ones, and BPD is like a Terminator vision that highlights the chinks in everyone’s armor. Unlike my mania, which tends to make me charismatic and eloquent, a BPD “turn” or “moment” sees me turn sour and crude.

I remember once wagging a butter knife at my friend’s mom and her baby-boomer friends at their dinner table after they were bemoaning the Gillard government. I accused them of “dry butt fucking my generation into oblivion.” They stared at me in open-mouthed shock, so I added that that they should “go huff asbestos in a ditch.” It’s not the kind of thing a level-headed person whips out at a 6 PM dinner with freshly introduced adults.

Of course, the outburst didn’t give me any sense of relief. It turned into a looping internal monologue of personal recrimination and self-hatred. Every decision is retroactively punished.

It’s a mirage illness. You feel like someone without fingerprints. You have no identity. You move between things constantly, people and passions. Onlookers can be tricked into seeing you as boldly transformative. In reality, you are someone without a sense of self. Sometimes I feel like a snake shedding infinite skin.

BPD isn’t talked about, but it needs to be. The stigma around BPD is pernicious. People accusing sufferers of using it as a crutch or an excuse for erratic behavior are only pushing us deeper into the pit of isolation that worsens the symptoms and the pain. Conversation can dispel a lot of the hurt, and while we have Mental Health Week, we may as well take the opportunity to air it out and punch it in the sunlight.

Luckily, BPD is treatable with consistent therapy, self-awareness, and support. It doesn’t have to be a lifelong chum like depression or anxiety. The ghost can definitely be outed. But like all mental illness, to do that requires some love, from friends, strangers, and yourself.

The shit thing about BPD is that it makes love hard to come by

Source: What It’s Like to Have Borderline Personality Disorder | VICE | United States

Letting the kids drink is a tough subject for parents: To give a tipple or not?

on this the 30th anniversary of the national drinking age being raised to 21, I’m asking myself the following question: Am I better off never letting my girls drink around me, at home or at family celebrations, until they reach the legal drinking age or does it make drinking less taboo and alluring if I let them start drinking at home, maybe with sips of wine and beer, during their teenage years?If you look at the scientific evidence, it seems more studies point to a negative consequence of parental offers of even a small amount of alcohol.
A recent report in the Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs (PDF) highlighted two such studies: One in 2011 in Sweden of 13-year-olds found that when children were offered alcohol by a parent, it was associated with a higher likelihood of heavy episodic drinking in girls, but not in boys; and a 1997 study of fourth- and sixth-graders in the United States found that when parents offered children a small amount of alcohol, the children were more likely to initiate alcohol use on their own.
Alcohol and teens

Alcohol and teens 01:08
In addition, another study compared seventh-graders in the United States with Australia, where adult-supervised drinking for teens is allowed. Some 36% of the Australian teens had problems with binge drinking compared with only 21% of American teens, according to the 2011 study.
“I think the evidence would suggest to me you are not playing your best hand if you provide alcohol to your kids,” said Dr. Ralph Hingson, director of the division of epidemiology and prevention research for the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism.
“It may be that nothing’s going to happen, but it’s like if you’re driving a car too fast in a residential neighborhood that the likelihood of being in a car crash is increased because you are taking an unnecessary risk.”
But at least one study shows that drinking with parents can lead to positive results.
The study, published in the 2004 Journal of Adolescent Heath and showcased in a 2008 Time magazine story, found that children who drank with their parents were about half as likely to say they had alcohol in the past month and about one third as likely to admit to binge drinking (having five or more drinks in a row) in the previous two weeks.
Stanton Peele is a psychologist, addiction expert and author of several books on addiction, including “Addiction Proof Your Child.”
The New York City father of three said he allowed his children, now in their 20s and 30s, to have a few sips of alcohol during meals in their teenage years and then, around 16, let them have a full glass of wine.
“The chances that children are going to go to college … and not consume alcohol are infinitesimal,” said Peele, who also provides online addiction treatment and support.
“And so the question every parent has to ask themselves (is) … ‘Who is going to teach them how to drink?’ “
Brian Gresko of Brooklyn, New York, a Babble.com contributor, says he and his wife are already teaching their young son about drinking.
In their house, alcohol is part of the family culture, said Gresko, who says he and his wife always have a cocktail, glass of wine or beer while cooking dinner and during the meal.
“We don’t hide this from our 5-year-old son. Felix knows the guys at our local wine store, and he sometimes asks me to make him ‘mocktails’ when we drink cocktails,” said Gresko, editor of a recent anthology of 22 novelists writing about fatherhood called “When I First Held You.”
“Alcohol is a part of life, and I would rather he begin to form a relationship with it under my supervision instead of in secret with his friends, where who knows what could happen.”
Elena Sonnino, a wellness writer, social media strategist and founder of the site Live.Do.Grow., also wants her 9-year-old to feel comfortable enough to talk with her about anything, but she takes a different approach.
She recently scaled back from having a nightly glass of wine to having one just once a week for wellness reasons and doesn’t believe she’ll let her daughter have sips of alcohol until she can legally have them.
“We won’t offer her tastes because we’re trying to show her that drinking wine is a responsibility,” said the northern Virginia mom. “You have a responsibility when you start drinking anything, wine or whatever it is, and you need to be able to make good decisions and until you’re 18, 21, your brain isn’t fully formed.”
Melissa Moog, a mom of three and founder of Itsabelly Baby Planners, a new parent and baby safety consulting service, also won’t be letting her kids enjoy sips of wine and beer.
“I think a legal drinking age was established for a very good reason,” said Moog of Portland, Oregon. “If I allowed my daughter at 16 to try a sip, I would be nervous that she’d think subconsciously that I was OK with her drinking before the legal age limit because I let her take a sip of my drink.”
While I admit I am still as confused as ever about what I will do when my girls get older, there are a few things I am pretty certain of that are backed by strong evidence.
I won’t ever get drunk in front of my kids, with studies showing that children who see their parents drunk are more likely to get drunk themselves.
And I will talk to my girls about alcohol as they get older. That’s the focus of the #TalkEarly online campaign by the Foundation for Advancing Alcohol Responsibility, encouraging parents to have conversations early so as children get older, the topic of drinking is not taboo.
A big focus is also encouraging parents to watch what they say and do in social media, including making jokes about needing a glass of wine.
“Avoid transmitting the ‘I need a drink’ message after a long day or stressful situation, and talking about what it feels like to get drunk,” said Micky Morrison, a mom of two and founder of BabyWeight TV.
Michelle Staruiala, a mom of three in Saskatchewan, who said her kids rarely see her have a drink, is proof good communication can lead to positive results.
She has always talked with her kids about everything, she said, and recently asked her 16-year-old son why he sometimes doesn’t go out with his friends.
“He’s like ‘Mom, some of them are drinking. … I don’t feel comfortable being around those situations.’
Join the conversation

See the latest news and share your comments with CNN Health on Facebook and Twitter.

“He’s really, really listened to our talks and he, to this day, never has had a drink in his life. So being 16, nowadays that’s kind of a rare thing,” she added with a laugh.

Source: Is drinking with your kids at home a good idea? – CNN.com

Preview of data from upcoming Stress in America™ poll shows election is equally stressful for Republicans and Democrats.

“We’re seeing that it doesn’t matter whether you’re registered as a Democrat or Republican — U.S. adults say they are experiencing significant stress from the current election,” said Lynn Bufka, PhD, APA’s associate executive director for practice research and policy. Across party lines, those registered as Democrats (55 percent) and Republicans (59 percent) are statistically equally likely to say the election is a very or somewhat significant source of stress.

“Election stress becomes exacerbated by arguments, stories, images and video on social media that can heighten concern and frustration, particularly with thousands of comments that can range from factual to hostile or even inflammatory,” said Bufka.

In fact, the survey revealed that social media appears to affect Americans’ stress levels when it comes to the election and related topics. Nearly 4 in 10 adults (38 percent) say that political and cultural discussions on social media cause them stress. In addition, adults who use social media are more likely than adults who do not to say the election is a very or somewhat significant source of stress (54 percent vs. 45 percent, respectively).

While men and women are equally likely (51 percent vs. 52 percent, respectively) to say the 2016 U.S. presidential election is a very or somewhat significant source of stress, election stress differs among generations of Americans. Millennials and “matures” are the most likely to say the election is a very or somewhat significant source of stress (56 percent vs. 59 percent, respectively) — significantly more than Generation Xers (45 percent) but not boomers (50 percent).

Source: APA Survey Reveals 2016 Presidential Election Source of Significant Stress for More Than Half of Americans

People who take calcium supplements may be at increased risk for developing buildups of plaque in their arteries, which is a sign of heart disease, a new study found.However, people who consume a lot of calcium through the food they eat may actually be at a lower risk of heart disease, the study showed.The findings add to a growing body of evidence that some dietary supplements, such as calcium supplements, may have harmful effects.”When it comes to using vitamin and mineral supplements, particularly calcium supplements being taken for bone health, many Americans think that more is always better,” study co-author Dr. Erin Michos, associate director of preventive cardiology at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine in Baltimore, said in a statement. “But our study adds to the body of evidence that excess calcium in the form of supplements may harm the heart and vascular system.”In the study, the researchers analyzed information from more than 2,700 people ages 45 to 84, who answered questions about their calcium intake, from both their diets and supplements.More From LiveScience 7 foods you can overdose on 7 foods your heart will hate Top 10 amazing facts about your heart 9 good sources of disease-fighter vitamin DThe participants also underwent two CT scans, one at the beginning of the study and another 10 years later. The scans looked for plaques containing calcium in the arteries of the heart, which are the coronary arteries. The presence of such calcium-containing plaques means that a person is at increased risk of developing heart disease, or having a heart attack. At the start of the study, about 1,500 people did not have any calcium-containing plaques in their arteries.The researchers then divided people into five groups based on the individuals’ calcium intake from both their diets and supplements.The people with the highest intake of calcium (greater than 1,400 milligrams per day) were actually 27 percent less likely to develop calcium-containing plaques in their coronary arteries over the 10-year study, compared with the group with the lowest intake of calcium (less than 400 mg per day). Moreover, the people in the highest-intake group who achieved their high calcium intake without supplements were at an especially low risk of developing plaques, according to the study.In contrast, people who took calcium supplements were overall 22 percent more likely to develop calcium-containing plaques over the study period, compared with those people who didn’t use such supplements. Forty-six percent of people in the study used calcium supplements.It’s possible that large doses of calcium consumed in supplements may temporarily elevate calcium levels in the blood, which leads to calcifications in blood vessels, the researchers said.”There is clearly something different in how the body uses and responds to supplements versus intake through diet that makes it riskier,” said study co-author John Anderson, a professor emeritus of nutrition at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. “It could be from taking a large dose all at once that the body is unable to process.”The researchers noted that they found only an association and cannot prove that taking calcium supplements causes an increase in the risk of developing calcium-containing plaques and heart disease. In addition, the participants self-reported their calcium intake, and it’s possible they did not always remember their intake correctly, which could affect the results, the researchers said.Previous research supports the new study’s results, though. A 2012 study from Sweden found that consuming high amounts of calcium was linked with an increased risk of dying from any cause during the study period, including from heart disease.The researchers said their new results are “hypothesis generating” and should spur more research in this area.”Based on this evidence, we can tell our patients that there doesn’t seem to be any harm in eating a heart-healthy diet that includes calcium-rich foods, and it may even be beneficial for the heart,” Michos said. “But patients should really discuss any plan to take calcium supplements with their doctor to sort out a proper dosage or whether they even need” such supplements.The study was published Oct. 11 in the Journal of the American Heart Association.Original article on Live Science.

Source: Calcium pills linked to artery buildup | Fox News

The digestive tract of the ‘future of food’ does not always run smooth… The startup behind drink-your-dinner powder Soylent has issued a product recall. Not..

Source: Soylent Bars recalled after some customers get sick | TechCrunch

1. Your partner shows up unannounced

Showing up at work unexpectedly is one of the signs your partner doesn’t respect you Surprising you with flowers on a random Wednesday is a welcome treat; showing up unannounced when you’re clearly busy or have a lot going on is not. If you find your partner repeatedly popping up at inopportune times, at inconvenient places, there’s a problem. As mentioned in The Frisky, if he or she shows up at your work, class, or home unannounced and uninvited, causing a scene, they don’t respect you.

2. Your partner uses gaslighting techniques

If you often find your partner using sneaky techniques to keep you in check, he or she doesn’t respect you. According to Your Tango,

“Gaslighting is a phrase assigned to an emotional abuse technique that has one partner convincing the other that reality is an illusion.

If your partner is denying they said and did things or blaming you for saying and doing things you didn’t, it’s abusive.” Have you ever known a person who, no matter how at fault they may be, somehow seems to vaguely skate over the issue, turning around on you? Dealing with a person like this is infuriating. If this is your partner’s norm, it’s likely it will never change.

 

3. Your partner treats sex as a transaction

A partner should never use sex as a tool Anytime a person expects sex in exchange for something, the most basic form of respect is tossed out the window. Sex should never be used as a method of coercion or a form of payment. It’s your body, and it certainly doesn’t belong to anyone else, no matter how committed two partners may be. If your partner does the chores, is it your job to owe them a sexual favor? No. Sadly, though, not everyone takes the same stance on the issue. Case in point — this article from The Stir that calls out Pat Robertson, host of a call-in show, who has claimed that wives should thank their husbands with sex each time they do chores around the house. No, just no.

4. Your partner isn’t proud of you

As you’ve strived for your parents’ approval throughout your life, seeking those heavily-weighted words of acceptance, you want the same from your partner. To hear “I’m proud of you,” from someone you respect is a big deal, and it’s important that both partners take pride in the relationship. When your partner is proud of you, and proud to be with you, Bustle says, there’s a mutual respect for one another. Could you imagine being in a relationship in which your significant other doesn’t really think you’ve worked hard for your career? Without a partner who’s genuinely proud of you, your accomplishments, and your overall contributions to your relationship, they clearly don’t realize or value your worth, and you shouldn’t stand for that. Ever.

5. Your partner refuses to compromise or negotiate

It is only natural the person closest to you will get under your skin, and part of a relationship is being able to discuss life’s major challenges as a team. But when one person in a relationship isn’t willing to act as a team, there’s bound to be long-term issues. A big part of respecting someone is being able to reach a compromise in which both parties are satisfied with the outcome. The Centers for Family Change says, “Respect is established when you consistently: consider and value the feelings and opinions of your partner; talk to and treat your partner in ways that you would want to be treated; and compromise and negotiate with your partner.” If you and your partner aren’t doing this, you’re not getting the respect you deserve.

Source: 5 Signs That Your Partner Doesn’t Respect You

“Remember, our nonviolent ETI from the contiguous universe are helping us bring zero point energy to Earth,” Podesta was told. “They will not tolerate any forms of military violence on Earth or in space.” The reference to ETI – extraterrestrial intelligence – set off alarm bells. So did mention of zero point energy, which its fans claim could be harnessed as an inexhaustible power supply.

How aliens and Apollo astronaut Edgar Mitchell got tangled up in WikiLeaks emails

Edgar Mitchell and Alan Shepard
Edgar Mitchell and Alan Shepard
Galatians 1:8 (NKJV) 8 But even if we, or an angel from heaven, preach any other gospel to you than what we have preached to you, let him be accursed.
Image result
Image result
Image result

WikiLeaks’ purloined emails cover a wide range of issues that were handled by Hillary Clinton’s campaign chairman, John Podesta, in them are clear references to issues that have to do with E.T., alien energy sources and Apollo 14 astronaut Edgar Mitchell’s efforts to educate the public (DISCLOSURE) about Aliens from outer space before he died.

While GOP presidential candidate Donald Trump focused his fire on what the WikiLeaks file had to say about Clinton’s Wall Street speeches as a way to distract the public from the larger issue, UFO fans dwelled on what Mitchell was telling Podesta as he made the transition from the Obama White House to the Clinton campaign in 2015.

In an email from January of that year, Mitchell asked for an urgent meeting with Podesta about “(DISCLOSURE) and zero point energy,” and promised that a colleague named Terri Mansfield would “bring us up to date on the Vatican’s awareness of ETI.”

Mitchell sent another plea via email that August.

“Remember, our nonviolent ETI from the contiguous universe are helping us bring zero point energy to Earth,” Podesta was told. “They will not tolerate any forms of military violence on Earth or in space.”

The reference to ETI – extraterrestrial intelligence – set off alarm bells. So did mention of zero point energy, which its fans claim could be harnessed as an inexhaustible power supply.

“Hillary Clinton Leaked E-Mails Reveal Shocking Discussions on SPACE WARS, UFOs and ETs,” one of the more breathless (and search-optimized) headlines read.

But in fact, Mitchell never met with Clinton – or with Podesta, for that matter. “The meeting with Podesta, sadly, never took place,” Carol Rosin, one of Mitchell’s longtime collaborators, told GeekWire today in an email.

Rosin and Mansfield confirmed that Mitchell was indeed the author of the two emails, even though they went out via Mansfield’s email address, terribillionairs@aol.com. They said they worked with an aide to Podesta in hopes of arranging a meeting with him to discuss a treaty to ban weapons in outer space.

Rosin noted that Mitchell and Podesta shared an interest in extraterrestrial (DISCLOSURE).

“As you know, Dr. Mitchell was courageously educating people about the fact that ‘we are not alone,’ that there is no evidence of there being any hostile ETs here or coming to control, intervene or harm us, that we can have zero point energy, that there are no weapons based in space and that this is the unique time in history when our leaders can sign and ratify the ‘Treaty on the Prevention of the Placement of Weapons in Outer Space’ that has been introduced by the leaders of Russia and China,” Rosin said.

So, what about Podesta? When he left the White House in February 2015, he said in a tweet that his biggest regret of the previous year was “once again not securing the disclosure of the UFO files.”

“I’ve talked to Hillary about that,” Podesta told KLAS-TV this March during a campaign stop in Las Vegas. “There are still classified files that could be declassified.”

Podesta hasn’t discussed what might be in those files, but Clinton has vowed to “get to the bottom” of any mystery that still surrounds the UFO phenomenon.

Two other emails in WikiLeaks’ Podesta file were sent by Tom DeLonge, a veteran of the rock band Blink-182. Those emails refer to a UFO-related documentary project – perhaps the “Sekret Machines” multimedia project that DeLonge kicked off this year.

In an email from last October, DeLonge told Podesta that he’s “the one who interviewed you for that special documentary,” relating to “our sensitive topic.” In the other email, sent this January, DeLonge referred to Air Force Maj. Gen. William McCasland in connection with the 1947 Roswell UFO incident.

Roswell was of interest to Mitchell as well. When I interviewed him in 2014, he acknowledged that he relied on the claims that others have made about Roswell and other UFO sightings. That secondhand perspective also probably applies to Mitchell’s reference to the Vatican connection.

Even if Clinton (or Trump) comes across new revelations, it’ll be too late for Mitchell. He passed away this February at the age of 85. Nevertheless, there may yet be more to come from the late moonwalker. “The book Edgar and I wrote decades ago will soon be published,” Rosin said in her email.

Remember when they come:

Image result

More from GeekWire:

Source: How aliens and Apollo astronaut Edgar Mitchell got tangled up in WikiLeaks emails

Bride lets guests pull down dress and grope her breasts to raise money for honeymoonThe woman is seen accepting cash from men and women as they pose for a picture while touching her et daily updates directly to your inboxA queue of people lines up to grope a bride’s breasts…so that she can afford a honeymoon.

This bizarre clip, which was filmed in China , shows men and women paying to touch the bride, apparently so that she and her new husband can pay for their post-wedding trip.The woman and those groping her appear to pose for pictures as she takes the money and pushes their hands to her chest.Meanwhile, the wedding party continues around them.Bride allows wedding guests to grope her breasts in exchange for honeymoon funds(Photo: YouTube)The first in line in the clip is a woman who spends some time posing for a photo with the bride, who is still wearing her wedding outfit.Her dress is pulled down to expose her breasts, which are then manhandled for cash.Read More Bride left screaming as groom nearly dies at wedding when prank goes horribly wrongNext in line is a man who gets even closer when the bride pulls his head down to her chest.Bride allows wedding guests to grope her breasts in exchange for honeymoon funds(Photo: YouTube)Finally, another man takes his turn while the bride blows a kiss to the camera.The strange custom is said to take place at weddings in China and other parts of Asia.Also common at Chinese weddings is tradition of “nao dongfang”, which sees both bride and groom subjected to pranks throughout their wedding reception.

Source: Bride lets guests pull down dress and grope her breasts to raise money for honeymoon – Mirror Online

Much of the book is devoted to explaining why we can’t turn to the experts for guidance, or at least, why we should expect no more from them than from parents or grandparents. As one of the world’s leading developmental psychologists, Gopnik is in a position to state, with authority, that no one knows what’s best when it comes to raising kids. That goes for co-sleeping as well as for screen time and making your kids do homework or take music lessons. Not that there aren’t good reasons for you to choose one course of action for your child, in the context of your situation. But science isn’t going to validate your decision for you.

Source: Alison Gopnik’s New Book Talks Of Science And Parenting : 13.7: Cosmos And Culture : NPR

Mechanisms and methods of methonine restriction

Life Extension Benefits of Methionine Restriction

by Ben Best

CONTENTS: LINKS TO SECTIONS BY TOPIC

  1. METHIONINE BASICS
  2. METHIONINE RESTRICTION EFFECTS
  3. METHIONINE RESTRICTION FOOD DATA
  4. METHIONINE RESTRICTION DIET
HEART MUSCLE METHIONINE
[HEART MUSCLE METHIONINE]

I. METHIONINE BASICS

Methionine is the only essential amino acid containing sulfur. Methionine is the precursor of the other sulfur-containing amino acids: cysteine, taurine, homocysteine, and cystathione. Methionine is essential for the synthesis of proteins and many other biomoleules required for survival. Rats fed a diet without methionine develop fatty liver disease which can be corrected by methionine supplements [DIGESTIVE DISEASES AND SCIENCES; Oz,HS; 53(3):767-776 (2008)]. Dietary methionine is essential for DNA methylation. Reduced DNA methylation results in genetic instability, aberrant gene expression, and increased cancer.

The above paragraph is the first paragraph from the section on methionine in my article dealing with the Methionine Cycle. Material in that article is useful background for the information below. Note, however, that there is an inverse correlation between lifespan and the methionine content of protein in the heart muscle of eight mammalian species [MECHANISMS OF AGEING AND DEVELOPMENT; Ruiz,MC; 126(10):1106-1114 (2005)]. The sulfur-containing amino acids methionine and cysteine are the most readily oxidized of any of the amino acids — both as free amino acids or in proteins. Methionine is oxidized to methionine sulfoxide, but methionine sulfoxide reductases enzymatically regenerate methionine [BIOPHYSICA ET BIOCHEMICA ACTA; Lee,BC; 1790 (11): 1471-1477 (2009)].

(return to contents)

II. METHIONINE RESTRICTION EFFECTS

Substantial evidence indicates that as much as half of the life-extension benefits of CRAN (Calorie Restriction with Adequate Nutrition) are due to restriction of the single amino acid methionine. In a study of rats given 20% the dietary methionine of control rats, mean lifespan increased 42% and maximum lifespan increased 44% [THE FASEB JOURNAL;Richie,JP; 8(15):1302-1307 (1994)]. Blood glutathione levels were 81% higher in the methionine-restricted rats at maturity, and 164% higher in old age. In other studies, methionine-restricted rats showed greater insulin sensitivity and reduced fat deposition [AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSIOLOGY; Hasek,BE; 299:R728-R739 (2010) and AGING CELL; Malloy,VL; 5(4):305-314 (2006)].

An experiment on mice given 35% the methionine of controls showed only a 7% increase in median life span [JOURNALS OF GERONTOLOGY; Sun,L; 64(7):711-722 (2009)]. Another mouse study showed lowered serum insulin, IGF−1, glucose, and thyroid hormone for methionine at one-third the normal intake. There was significant mouse mortality for methionine less than one-third normal intake, but with one-third intake of methionine maximum lifespan was significantly increased [AGING CELL; Miller,RA; 4(3):119-125 (2005)]. Rats generally show greater longevity benefits from CRAN than mice.

Mitochondrial free radical generation is believed by many biogerontologists to be a significant contributor to aging damage. Rats given 20% the dietary methionine of control rats show significantly decreased free radical generation from complex I and complex III of liver mitochondria as well as from complex I of heart mitochondria — associated with reduced oxidative damage to mitochondrial DNA and protein [THE FASEB JOURNAL;Sanz,A; 20(8):1064-1073 (2006)]. These results are comparable to the reduced mitochondrial free radical generation seen in CRAN rats [ENDOCRINOLOGY; Gredilla,R; 146(9):3713-3717 (2005)]. Rats given 60% rather than 20% of the methionine of control rats showed nearly the same amount of reduced mitochondrial free radical generation and damage [BIOCHEMICA ET BIOPHYSICA ACTA; Lopez-Torres,M; 1780(11):1337-1347 (2008)]. Body weight was not reduced with 60% dietary methionine, leading to the conclusion that such reduction would not result in reduced growth in children [REJUVENATION RESEARCH; Caro,P; 12(6):421-434 (2009)]. It was concluded that methionine restriction is the sole reason for reduced mitochondrial free radical generation and damage associated with CRAN [Ibid.] and protein restriction [BIOGERONTOLOGY; Caro,P; 9(3):183-196 (2008)].

Evidence for the suggestion that methionine oxidation plays a significant role in lifespan can be found in the considerable lifespan extension benefits seen in transgenic fruit flies that overexpress a gene for repairing oxidized methionine in protein [PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES (USA); Ruan,H; 99(5):2748 (2002)]. The sulfur-containing amino acids methionine and cyteine are more easily oxidized in proteins than other amino acids [JOURNAL OF PHYSIOLOGY)], which is apparently related to the reduced free radical generation in mitochondria seen in methionine restriction. Both the fruit fly experiment and the methionine restriction experiments indicate a significant impact on lifespan from methionine oxidation.

It has been suggested that glycine supplementation has the same effect as methionine restriction. An experiment with glycine supplementation in rats showed a 30% extension in maximum lifespan [FASEB JOURNAL; Brind,J; 25:528.2 (2011)]. Additionally, three grams of glycine daily has been shown to improve sleep quality in young (average age 31) female Japanese adults [SLEEP AND BIOLOGICAL RHYTHM; Inagawa,K; 4:75-77 (2006)]

(return to contents)

TABLE 1 Lysine, Threonine and Methionine in Food
(milligrams amino acid per gram protein)
Food Sulfur-containing amino acid Lysine Threonine
Nuts,Seeds 46 ± 17 45 ± 14 36 ± 3
Animal foods 38 85 ± 12 44
Cereals 37 ± 5 31 ± 10 32 ± 4
Fruits 27 ± 6 25 ± 12 29 ± 7
Legumes 25 ± 3 64 ± 10 38 ± 3

III. METHIONINE RESTRICTION FOOD DATA

The adjoining table (my Table 1) from [AMERICAN JOURNAL OF CLINICAL NUTRITION; Young,VR; 59(suppl):1203s-1212s (1994)] indicates the essential amino acids most likely to be limited in plant protein foods. Cereal protein contains comparable sulfur-containing amino acids (including methionine) per gram as animal foods, whereas fruit and legume protein contain about 65% as much methionine. Nuts and seeds are particularly high in methionine, on average 20% higher in methionine than animal protein, although the absolute amount of protein in animal foods tends to be higher, which makes total methionine intake generally higher in animal foods. Vegetables are not shown in Table 1, but as described in Table 4 in the AMERICAN JOURNAL OF CLINICAL NUTRITION paper from which Table 1 is taken, vegetables are on average in the 1-2% range for percent protein and fruits are in the 0.5-1% protein range — so neither fruits nor vegetables should be considered serious sources of protein (green peas are an exceptional vegetable with 5.4% protein, and avacado is an exceptional fruit with 2% protein). Cereals are typically 7-13% protein and legumes are typically 20-30% protein (soybeans are exceptionally high in protein even for legumes, being in the range of 35-45% protein).

The dry weight of beef, broccoli, peanuts, and peas is about one-third protein, whereas cereals and fruits are less than 10% dry weight protein. Unlike many other plant proteins, legumes are not particularly low in lysine, and they are close to animal protein in threonine content. Vegetarians attempting to achieve complete protein often combine cereals (which are relatively high in methionine for plant protein) with legumes (which are relatively high in lysine for plant protein).

PHYTIC ACID
[PHYTIC ACID]

Lentils and other beans contain high amounts of phytic acid (phosphate-rich inositol), which can chelate positively-charged multivalent mineral ions (especially iron, zinc, magnesium, and calcium), preventing absorption. Soaking lentils and beans in warm water overnight not only makes them easier to cook, it allows some of the phytates to be soaked-out (and thrown-away with the water). Acidic solution (such as vinegar) better removes the phytates. Cooking also helps destroy phytates.

Although it would be very difficult to determine a diet providing optimum methionine for maximum human lifespan — even on the basis of rat experiments — evidence is convincing that reducing dietary methionine can help extend lifespan. The Table 2, listing milligrams of methionine per 100 grams of food (rather than per gram of protein, as in Table 1), could be helpful. Table values are based on [FOOD VALUES OF PORTIONS COMMONLY USED by Jean Pennington (1989)].

 

TABLE 2 Methionine in Foods
(milligrams/100 grams of food)
Food Methionine
Cheese, parmesan (dry) 971
Skim milk (dry) 907
Tuna (light) 862
Cheese, Swiss (processed) 792
Corned beef 711
Cheese, Cheddar 661
Salmon 631
Cheese, American (processed) 579
Extra lean beef 572
Walnuts, black 479
Egg white 394
Whole boiled egg 392
Pistashio nuts 386
Peanuts 289
Walnuts, Persian (English) 286
Cashew nuts 279
Cheerios 254
Oatmeal 250
Broad (Fava) beans 239
Soybeans 224
Barley 208
Tofu (firm) 202
Grape nuts (cereal) 200
Shredded wheat (cereal) 193
Wheaties (cereal) 168
Rice 167
Almonds 161
Yogurt 155
White beans 146
Black turtle beans 141
Navy beans 131
Kidney (red) beans 130
Chickpeas (garbanzos) 116
Blackeyed peas (cowpeas) 110
Lima beans 100
Macadamia nuts 93
Millet 85
Peas (raw) 82
Adzuki beans 79
Lentils 77
Corn 70
Spaghetti 51
Sweet potato (baked) 42
Mushrooms 40
Avacado 39
Mung beans 35
Broccoli 34
Potato 33
Pinto beans 33
Amaranth 30
Cauliflower 28
Oranges 22
Tomato paste 19
Kale 18
Banana 17
Blueberries 11
Onion 10
Tomato 8
Apple 2
Grapefruit 2
Strawberries 1

 

The absolute methionine content of a food is better evaluated knowing what the water, fat, carbohydrate, fiber, and protein content of that food is. A higher protein content and a lower methionine content is better than having a low methionine content because the food is low in protein and high in water, fat, or carbohydrate. Lima beans and rice are relatively high in both carbohydrate and methionine. Onions and strawberries are low in methionine, but are high in water and low in protein.

The data for Table 3 is taken from [NUTRITIVE VALUE OF FOODS; USDA Bulletin 72 (1981)], but is adjusted to give percent protein by dry weight. Percent water in the food is not related to the other columns. Fiber content is not given, and I suspect that fiber is equated with carbohydrate. I may have made a few errors, and I suspect that the data contains a few errors (garbage-in, garbage-out). But for the most part I think the data is good, my transcription is accurate, and my calculations are correct.

 

TABLE 3 Percent Macronutrients (dry weight)
and Percent Water (whole food)
Food Protein Carbohydrate Fat Water
Egg, white 100 0 0 88
Tuna solid,white, water 97 0 3 63
Salmon (baked) 81 0 19 67
Tuna chunk,light,oil 77 0 23 61
Corned beef 69 0 31 59
Ground beef,lean 57 0 43 56
Cheese, Parmesan (grated) 55 5 40 18
Ham 54 0 46 53
Ground beef,regular 53 0 47 54
Cheese, Swiss 47 7 47 42
Egg, whole 46 8 46 75
Yogurt, nonfat 43 57 0 80
Soybeans 41 20 39 71
Cheese, American processed 40 0 60 39
Milk, nonfat 39 59 2 91
Sesame seeds 29 14 57 5
Lentils, cooked 29 69 2 72
Sausage 29 0 71 45
Peas, split 27 71 2 70
Walnut, black 26 13 61 4
Frankfurter 26 5 68 54
Chickpeas (garbanzos) 23 75 6 60
Pinto beans, cooked 23 75 2 65
Pistachio nuts 22 26 52 4
Mushroom, cooked 25 67 8 91
Lima beans, cooked 24 74 2 64
Cashew nuts 16 35 49 2
Macaroni (enriched) 15 83 2 64
Tomato paste 16 80 3 74
Bread, whole wheat 16 76 7 38
Bread,1/3 wht (Pmnk) 16 78 6 37
Spaghetti (enriched), ckd 15 83 2 64
Egg noodles 15 80 4 70
Walnut, Persian (English) 15 19 65 4
Bread,2/3 wht (rye) 14 79 7 37
Onions 14 85 0 91
Corn 13 87 0 76
Potato (baked+skin) 9 91 0 71
Rice, brown 9 89 2 70
Avacado flesh (Florida) 8 46 46 80
Strawberries (raw) 8 83 8 92
Rice, white 7 93 0 73

 

Brown rice would be more nutritious than white rice, except that the fats in germ that is removed to make white rice can go rancid. Ingestion of Advanced Glycation End-Products (AGES) is detrimental to health.

Table 4gives the percent fat obtained for selected items in the above table, and breaks down the fat into percent saturated, monosaturated, and polyunsaturated fat. Numbers are rounded to the nearest whole number, which is why the total percentages don’t always add to 100. Monosaturated fats and polyunsaturated fats are preferred to unsaturated fats except where there is rancidity. Again, ingestion of Advanced Glycation End-Products (AGES) is detrimental to health. I had no data for non-fat cheese, the only kind of cheese that I eat.

 

TABLE 4 Percent Fat Types
(rounded)
Food Saturated Monosaturated Polyunsaturated % Fat
Cheese, American processed 67 30 4 52
Ground beef,lean 45 50 4 56
Egg, whole 44 52 4 48
Corned beef 44 52 4 29
Frankfurter 39 51 10 63
Ham 39 49 12 45
Sausage 37 50 11 69
Salmon (baked) 24 48 28 18
Tuna chunk,light,oil 22 30 48 18
Avacado flesh (Florida) 22 60 18 80
Cashew nuts 21 62 18 63
Soybeans 15 22 62 33
Pistachio nuts 13 71 16 52
Walnut, Persian (English) 9 24 66 64
Walnut, black 7 24 70 59

 

Table 5 gives relative proportions of all of the essential amino acids (plus tyrosine) for some representative high-protein animal foods as well as for some low-methionine plant foods.

Lysine is given after methionine because lysine is most often the limiting amino acid (the essential amino acid found in the smallest quantity relative to requirement) in cereals, nuts, and seeds — but lysine in abundant in legumes, for which methionine is typically the limiting amino acid [AMERICAN JOURNAL OF CLINICAL NUTRITION; Young,VR; 59(suppl):1203s-1212s (1994)]. Lysine is therefore listed second in the table. Leucine is listed third because of its paradoxical ability to reduce fat in high doses [DIABETES; Zhang,Y; 56(6):1647-1654 (2007)] and low doses [DIABETES; Cheng,Y; 59(1):17-25 (2010)]. Leucine and threonine are the limiting amino acid in vegetables and fruits, although vegetables and fruits are too low in protein to be considered significant proteins sources. Trytophan restriction has been shown to have a modest (compared to methionine restriction) ability to extend lifespan in rats [ MECHANISMS OF AGEING AND DEVELOPMENT; Ooka,H; 43(1):79-98 (1988)], reputedly by opposing an age-related increase in brain serotonin.

Tyramine was evaluated because of claims that high dietary tyramine could have adverse reactions with monoamine oxidase inhibitors (I take deprenyl). But none of the foods listed have seriously high levels of tyramine, so tyramine is not really a concern.

Again, this data is taken from  [FOOD VALUES OF PORTIONS COMMONLY USED by Jean Pennington (1989)]. I have adjusted the Pennington data to be standardized for 100 grams of food, rather than reproducing the variable quantities of food given, which makes comparison difficult. I may have made transcription errors, but probably not many (if any).

 

TABLE 5 Low Methionine Beans/Grains
Essential amino acids (+tyramine)
(milligrams/100 grams food)
Met = Methionine
Lys = Lysine
Leu = Leucine
Thr = Threonine
Try = Typtophan
Iso = Isoleucine
Phe = Phenylalanine
Val = Valine
His = Histidine
Tyr = Tyrosine
Food Met Lys Leu Thr Try Iso Phe Val His Tyr
Skim milk,dry 907 2867 3543 1633 510 2187 1746 2420 980 1747
American cheese 579 2225 1982 729 329 1036 1139 1343 914 1229
Walnuts, black 479 732 1729 739 325 993 1086 1304 489 761
Egg white 394 642 882 451 155 618 636 761 230 406
Walnuts, Persian (English) 286 293 1007 454 193 575 636 732 364 446
Cashew nuts 279 829 1304 600 239 743 804 1054 404 496
Soybeans, cooked 224 1108 1355 723 242 807 869 831 449 630
Whey, dry 200 967 1067 567 233 567 567 300 233 367
Rice, cooked 167 292 542 333 83 292 375 458 208 375
Yogurt, nonfat 169 514 578 235 32 312 312 474 142 289
Kidney (red) beans 130 595 693 365 103 383 469 454 241 244
Chickpeas (garbanzos) 116 593 631 329 85 380 475 372 244 220
Blackeyed peas (cowpeas) 110 523 592 294 95 314 451 368 240 250
Lima beans, cooked 100 523 673 337 92 411 470 469 238 276
Peas (raw) 82 317 323 203 37 195 200 235 106 113
Adzuki beans 79 567 632 255 72 300 398 387 198 224
Lentils, cooked 77 779 809 400 100 482 551 554 314 298
Corn, cooked 70 141 359 133 23 133 155 191 91 126
Broadbeans (Fava) 62 468 572 270 72 306 97 338 193 241
Spaghetti, cooked 51 109 220 133 41 170 177 _ 80 113
Mushrooms 40 211 129 94 46 82 80 97 57 46
Potato, baked 33 126 124 75 32 84 92 117 45 77
Pinto beans, cooked 33 564 656 346 97 363 444 430 229 231
Amaranth 30 109 167 85 27 102 114 118 44 68
Avacado flesh (Florida) 29 75 99 53 17 57 54 78 23 39
Mung beans, cooked 25 123 131 58 27 39 98 85 97 52
Tomato paste 19 108 105 86 26 73 80 77 60 51
Onion 10 56 41 28 18 42 30 28 19 29

 

Confusion can be caused by the variable amounts of proteins in the foods. Some foods have high water content (such as onion), or high carbohydrate content (such as rice), or high fat content (such as nuts). To compare relative amounts of methionine in the proteins in the foods, I have created Table 6 in which I have adjusted the values to reflect milligrams of amino acid per gram of protein, rather than the per 100 grams of food used in the previous table. To do this, I first calculate dry weight [(100 − % water) / 100] and then divide by % protein. (Note that Persian/English walnuts contain 60% the protein of black walnuts, mostly because of higher fat content. This creates a misimpression that Persian/English walnuts are much lower in methionine than black walnuts.)

I make no guarantee that I have made no transcription errors in manually copying data from either table to my calculator.

 

>

TABLE 6 Low Methionine Beans/Grains
Essential amino acids
(milligrams/gram protein)
Met = Methionine
Lys = Lysine
Leu = Leucine
Thr = Threonine
Try = Typtophan
Iso = Isoleucine
Phe = Phenylalanine
Val = Valine
His = Histidine
% P = % Protein (dry weight)
% W = % Water
Food Met Lys Leu Thr Try Iso Phe Val His % P % W
Rice (dry) 24 42 77 48 12 42 54 65 30 7 70
Milk,nonfat 24 75 92 43 13 57 45 63 26 40 91
Cheese, American 24 91 81 30 13 42 47 55 37 40 39
Corn, cooked 22 45 115 43 7.4 43 50 61 29 13 76
Sesame seeds 21 20 47 25 13 26 33 34 18 29 5
Walnuts, Persian (English) 20 20 70 32 13 40 44 51 25 15 4
Walnuts, black 19 29 69 30 13 40 44 52 20 26 4
Yogurt, skim 19 60 67 27 3.7 36 36 55 17 43 80
Soybeans, cooked 19 93 114 61 20 68 73 70 38 41 71
Cashew nuts 18 53 83 38 15 47 51 67 26 16 2
Avacado flesh (Florida) 18 47 62 33 11 36 34 49 14 8 80
Mushroom, cooked 18 94 57 42 20 36 36 45 25 25 91
Chickpeas (garbanzos) 13 64 69 36 9.2 41 52 40 27 23 60
Potato 13 48 48 29 12 32 35 45 17 9 71
Lentils, cooked 9.5 96 100 49 12 59 68 68 39 29 72
Spaghetti, cooked 9.4 20 41 25 7.6 31 33 _ 15 15 64
Onion 8 45 33 22 14 34 24 22 15 14 91
Tomato paste 4.5 26 25 21 6 18 19 19 14 16 74
Pinto beans, cooked 4 70 81 43 12 45 55 53 28 23 65

 

I am searching for foods that are high in protein, but low in methionine, as a source of protein. Preferably the foods should be high in the essential amino acids (other than methionine), and low in fat (especially saturated fat) and low in carbohydrate. As sources of protein, the data in the Table 6 are important in proportion to the percent protein in the food, especially when the water content is low. As long as protein is adequate in the diet overall, other foods that are low in protein and high in water are not much of a concern from a methionine restriction point of view. Legumes offer the best tradeoff of low methionine, and high protein (high essential amino acids), particularly lentils and pinto beans. Adzuki beans would be a contender except that the high fiber content makes them hard to process. I prefer to get my fiber from other sources.

Table 7 was created by dividing methionine amount into the amounts of the other essential amino acids shown in Table 5. Thus, the numbers in the lysine column reflect how many times the lysine content of the food exceed the methionine content.

 

TABLE 7 Ratio of Essential amino acids to methionine
(Essential amino acids)/methionine
Lys = Lysine
Leu = Leucine
Thr = Threonine
Try = Typtophan
Iso = Isoleucine
Phe = Phenylalanine
Val = Valine
His = Histidine
Food Lys Leu Thr Try Iso Phe Val His
Pinto beans, cooked 17 20 10 2.9 11 13 13 6.9
Lentils, cooked 10 11 5.2 1.3 6.3 7.2 7.2 4.1
Broadbeans (Fava) 7.5 9.2 4.3 1.2 6.4 1.6 5.5 3.1
Adzuki beans 7.2 8.0 3.2 0.91 3.8 5.0 4.9 2.5
Tomato paste 5.7 5.5 4.5 1.4 3.8 4.2 4.1 3.2
Onion 5.6 4.1 2.8 1.8 4.2 3.0 2.8 1.9
Mushrooms 5.3 3.2 2.6 1.2 2.0 2.0 2.4 1.4
Lima beans, cooked 5.2 6.7 3.4 0.92 4.1 4.7 4.7 2.4
Chickpeas (garbanzos) 5.1 5.4 2.8 0.73 3.3 4.1 3.2 2.1
Soybeans, cooked 4.9 6.0 3.2 1.1 3.6 3.9 3.7 2.0
Mung beans, cooked 4.9 5.2 2.3 1.1 1.6 3.9 3.4 3.9
Blackeyed peas (cowpeas) 4.8 5.4 2.7 0.86 2.9 4.1 3.3 2.2
Whey, dry 4.8 5.3 2.8 1.2 2.8 1.5 1.2 1.8
Kidney (red) beans 4.6 5.3 2.8 0.79 2.9 3.6 3.5 1.9
Peas (raw) 3.9 3.9 2.5 0.45 2.4 2.4 2.9 1.3
Potato, baked 3.8 3.8 2.3 0.97 2.5 2.8 3.5 1.4
Cheese, American 3.8 3.4 1.3 0.57 1.8 2.0 2.3 1.6
Amaranth 3.6 5.6 2.8 0.9 3.4 3.8 3.9 1.5
Skim milk,dry 3.2 3.9 1.8 0.56 2.4 1.9 2.7 1.1
Cashew nuts 3.0 4.7 2.2 0.86 2,7 2.9 3.8 1.4
Yogurt, nonfat 3.0 3.4 1.4 0.19 1.8 1.8 2.8 0.84
Avacado flesh (Florida) 2.6 3.4 1.8 0.59 2.0 1.9 2.7 0.79
Spaghetti, cooked 2.1 4.3 2.6 0.80 3.3 3.5 _ 1.6
Corn, cooked 2.0 5.1 1.9 0.32 1.9 2.2 2.7 1.3
Rice, cooked 1.7 3.2 2.0 0.50 1.7 2.2 2.7 1.2
Egg white 1.6 2.2 1.1 0.39 1.6 1.6 1.9 0.58
Walnuts, black 1.5 3.6 1.5 0.68 2.1 2.3 2.7 1.0
Walnuts, Persian (English) 1.0 3.5 1.6 0.67 2.0 2.2 2.6 1.3

 

(return to contents)

IV. METHIONINE RESTRICTION DIET

Pinto beans and lentils are the high-protein foods that show the best low-methionine, high-lysine profile, by a large margin. Lentils, however, are easier to soak before cooking to remove phytates, and produce a bit less odiferous flatulance than pinto beans. Both legumes, however, are high in phytic acid and raffinose oligosaccharides. Humans lack the enzyme to digest raffinose, which passes to the lower intestine where bacteria possessing the digestive enzyme create gases which can be quite odiferous.

Soaking pinto beans for 16 hours at room temperature only reduces raffinose oligosaccharides by 10%, and 90 minutes of cooling only cuts the raffinose oligosaccharide content in half [JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL AND FOOD CHEMISTRY; Song,D; 54(4):1296-1301 (2006)].

Just as the objective of calorie restriction is not to live without calories, methionine is an essential amino acid that can be reduced to 60% normal consumption to obtain most of the benefit [BIOGERONTOLOGY; Caro,P; 9(3):183-196 (2008)]. That dietary objective can be met without the need to consume legumes.

(return to contents)

 

Source: LIFE EXTENSION BENEFITS OF METHIONINE RESTRICTION

She was proud to be a vegan and wanted her son to live like she did. But her family members said she took her food choices too far — her diet became a danger, in their eyes, something closer to an obsession than a healthy lifestyle.

“She was going to live on water and sunlight,” her sister-in-law told CBS Pittsburgh.

When the 33-year-old woman from western Pennsylvania, Elizabeth Hawk, began feeding her 11-month-old child sparse meals of only fruit and nuts, however, that was beyond the pale.

The boy developed what the sister-in-law, Brandy Hawk, described as a severe rash. He seemed to have lost control of his motor skills, she said, rendering his hands useless. Elizabeth Hawk said allergies were the reason for his apparent malaise, not the diet.

That argument did not convince Jerry Hawk, Elizabeth’s separated husband and the father of the child. He removed his son from his estranged wife’s care, taking the boy to a Children & Youth Services agency in nearby Fayette County. From there, reported Philly.com, the agency took the child to a hospital in West Virginia.

An attending physician said the lack of nutritious food, according to Pennsylvania’s WKBN, caused a “failure to thrive.” Malnourishment had hindered the boy’s ability to develop, and ignoring the skin condition could have led to septic shock.

It is not inevitable that a vegan-only menu would doom young children to sickness or starvation, as The Washington Post wrote in July. But a commitment to veganism can make raising a healthy child more challenging, as parents must ensure that a child ingests sufficient calories and the correct balance of nutrients. In 2001, for instance, a pair of vegetarian nutritionists published recommendations for vegan infants in the Journal of the American Dietetic Association:

“For the first 4 to 6 months, breast milk should be the sole food with soy-based infant formula as an alternative. Commercial soymilk should not be the primary beverage until after age 1 year. Breastfed vegan infants may need supplements of vitamin B-12 if maternal diet is inadequate; older infants may need zinc supplements and reliable sources of iron and vitamins D and B-12. Timing of solid food introduction is similar to that recommended for non-vegetarians. Tofu, dried beans, and meat analogs are introduced as protein sources around 7-8 months. Vegan diets can be planned to be nutritionally adequate and support growth for infants.”

The young boy now lives with his father. Brandy Hawk, the sister-in-law, told CBS Pittsburgh the child is “doing great” and has “turned completely around.”

Elizabeth Hawk faces charges of child endangerment and was released on her own recognizance. A preliminary hearing has been set for Nov. 14, Philly.com reported.

Source: Vegan mom fed her 11-month-old only fruit and nuts. Now she faces child endangerment charges. – The Washington Post

The idea of using the body’s immune system to fight cancer has been around for a century, but only in the past half a dozen years have dramatic breakthroughs begun rocking the medical world.

“That’s when the tsunami came,” says Drew Pardoll, director of the Bloomberg-Kimmel Institute for Cancer Immunology at Johns Hopkins University, and those advances are spawning hundreds of clinical trials nationwide, plus generating intense interest from patients, physicians and investors. Yet researchers remember the past anti-cancer efforts that fizzled after initially showing promise — which explains why most say daunting hurdles and years of perseverance are still ahead.

Here’s a primer about the new treatments and how they work:

What is cancer immunotherapy?

Immunotherapy is a significantly different approach from conventional treatments such as chemotherapy or radiation. The latter attack the malignancy itself, while immunotherapy aims to empower the immune system to kill it.

Because of the immune system’s unique power, says the nonprofit Cancer Research Institute, this therapy could prove a formidable weapon against many kinds of cancer and offer long-term protection with reduced side effects.

Which immunotherapies are sparking excitement? 

Two types of immunotherapy are drawing most of the interest: checkpoint inhibitors, which remove “brakes” from the immune system, allowing it to see and go after cancer; and CAR T-cell therapy, which involves a more customized attack.

“Checkpoint” inhibitors are designed to block the ability of certain proteins to blunt or weaken the response of the immune system so it can’t recognize and go after abnormal cells. In normal times, such checkpoint proteins keep the immune system from being too aggressive and damaging the body. But cancer sometimes hijacks them and uses them to suppress the immune system’s response to disease.

The Food and Drug Administration has cleared four checkpoint inhibitors for adults: Yervoy, also known as ipilimumab; Keytruda, or pembrolizumab; Opdivo, or nivolumab, and Tecentriq, or atezolizumab. The drugs are approved for malignancies including melanoma and Hodgkin lymphoma, as well as lung, kidney and bladder cancer. The treatments also are being tested in a wide range of other cancers.

Former president Jimmy Carter was treated with Keytruda, surgery and radiation for advanced melanoma last year. He announced in December that all signs of his cancer had disappeared.

In CAR T-cell therapy, T cells — a key part of the immune system — are removed from a patient, genetically modified in the lab to target a specific cancer and infused back into the person. This treatment, available only in clinical trials, is being tested mainly for leukemia and lymphoma. The Food and Drug Administration is likely to approve the first CAR T-cell treatment next year or in 2018.

Of these two immunotherapy approaches, most research and investor interest is focused on checkpoint inhibitors. That’s because they are off-the-shelf treatments that are much easier to administer than customized T-cell therapy, said Crystal Mackall, a former National Cancer Institute researcher who’s now leading immunotherapy trials for Stanford University School of Medicine.

What are some of the main challenges in immunotherapy?

Among the biggest challenges are increasing the response rate among patients and turning initial responses into long-lasting remissions. CAR T-cell therapy often produces a high remission rate in blood-disorder trials, but a significant percentage of patients relapse.

Checkpoint inhibitors induce responses — signaling a tumor has been shrunk or stabilized — in an average of just about 20 percent of patients, said oncologist Elizabeth Jaffee, the deputy director of the Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center at Hopkins. Researchers need to understand why only some cases and some cancers respond. Why, for example, the treatment benefits melanoma but not pancreatic cancer. They think the key to improving effectiveness will be coming up with combination treatments, as happened with AIDS. Jaffee points out that the tide was turned against that disease only after researchers figured out how to use a “cocktail” of medications to keep people with HIV from developing AIDS.

Nationwide, combination trials are testing the simultaneous use of two or more checkpoint inhibitors, a checkpoint inhibitor with a CAR T-cell therapy or an immunotherapy plus radiation and chemotherapy. But combining these can increase safety risks.

Jill O’Donnell-Tormey, chief executive of the Cancer Research Institute, said researchers also are trying to understand tumors’ “micro-environments,” which contain cells and other factors that appear to sometimes suppress the immune system’s response to cancer. The institute, along with the American Association for Cancer Research and two European groups, sponsored the three-day conference in New York.

What are immunotherapy’s downsides?

By revving up the immune system, immunotherapy can cause sometimes serious damage to healthy tissue and organs. Researchers are working on ways to limit or even reverse the potential toxicity, but much work needs to be done.

CAR T-cell therapy poses two types of safety risks. Almost all patients get sick with flu-like symptoms, including high fever and pain, a week or so after the treatment; some end up in intensive care. The treatment also can cause brain swelling that can be fatal.

Yet standard treatments have major side effects as well. Chemotherapy and radiation, when used for children with leukemia, can cause long-term problems such as secondary cancers, infertility and heart damage. In many ways, researchers say, immunotherapy is less toxic over the long term and might eventually be a good first-line alternative to chemo and radiation.

Immunotherapy can carry higher price tags. For example, Merck’s checkpoint inhibitor, Keytruda, costs about $150,000 a year. Once CAR T-cell therapies are approved by the Food and Drug Administration, they may cost hundreds of thousands of dollars a year, according to some analysts. If the treatments are used as directed by the agency, chances are good that insurance will pay for at least some of that.

Does immunotherapy work for children?

Immunotherapy in kids is a mixed picture.

Checkpoint inhibitors are only now being tested extensively in children, so it will take time to see how well they work. But very early-stage studies suggest that they may not be as effective as in adults. One theory holds that these drugs work better in cancers with many mutations — and pediatric cancers tend to have many fewer mutations.

CAR T-cell treatment, on the other hand, is being widely tested in children and has shown impressive effectiveness against acute lymphoblastic leukemia, the most common childhood leukemia.

How do I find immunotherapy treatments?

Talk first to your doctor, who should be able to help you find appropriate medication or clinical trials for unapproved treatment. Trials sponsored by the National Cancer Institute can be found at trials.cancer.gov. Studies also are listed on the website ClinicalTrials.gov –though that doesn’t signify government endorsement or approval. Another resource is the Cancer Research Institute’s Clinical Trial Finder. 

Read more:

Family hopes immunotherapy will save young girl with tumor

Long-term survival rates lengthen for melanoma patients on immunotherapy

Brain cancer replaces leukemia as leading cause of cancer deaths in children

While confident that immunotherapy will play an increasing role in cancer treatment, researchers must overcome some obstacles.

Source: Cancer immunotherapy is moving fast. Here’s what you need to know. – The Washington Post

Driven by technological progress, human life expectancy has increased greatly since the nineteenth century. Demographic evidence has revealed an ongoing reduction in old-age mortality and a rise of the maximum age at death, which may gradually extend human longevity. Together with observations that lifespan in various animal species is flexible and can be increased by genetic or pharmaceutical intervention, these results have led to suggestions that longevity may not be subject to strict, species-specific genetic constraints. Here, by analysing global demographic data, we show that improvements in survival with age tend to decline after age 100, and that the age at death of the world’s oldest person has not increased since the 1990s. Our results strongly suggest that the maximum lifespan of humans is fixed and subject to natural constraints.

Source: Evidence for a limit to human lifespan : Nature : Nature Research

Source: Next Big Future: Toxic air pollution nanoparticles discovered in the human brain and could be a possible cause of Alzheimer’s disease

Source: Next Big Future: Ten percent have immune systems that ignore HIV and thus the immune system is saved and AIDS does not develop

Source: Next Big Future: Towards pills that can mimick many of the benefits of exercise

Source: Next Big Future: DARPA funds seven teams to modulate nerves to treat disease

Skeletal muscle secretes several bioactive proteins from within the cell into extracellular fluid. The secretion of several proteins, whose levels increase in response to exercise, can mediate exercise-induced benefits such as metabolic improvement, anti-inflammation, and muscle hypertrophy. We recently found a novel muscle-secreted protein SPARC which may be fundamental for the colon cancer prevention mechanism of regular exercise, demonstrated by various epidemiological studies. Many other proteins, along with c-miRNAs in exosome and metabolites, secreted from muscle have yet to be identified. In the future, the presence and beneficial function of more unknown bioactive factors are expected to be discovered, which strengthens the development of sports science.

Source: BioDiscovery Skeletal muscle: novel and intriguing characteristics as a secretory organ

Putative Effects of Extreme Physical Activity on the Brain and Cognitive FunctionDespite the positive effects of moderate physical activity on the brain, a number of studies have linked extreme exercise to disruption of cellular, metabolic, and hormonal processes and, in turn, to adverse neurological sequelae and cognitive dysfunction. Here, we review cellular mechanisms by which extreme physical activity might interfere with normal neuronal function, particularly those involved in learning and memory.Increased Reactive Oxygen Species and Cytokine ProductionThe brain comprises approximately 2% of adult human body weight and yet consumes approximately 20% of oxygen at rest (Allaman, 2013). The high rate of oxygen consumption, coupled with the low levels of anti-oxidant enzymes found in the brain, particularly during intense levels of physical activity, increases the vulnerability of the CNS to oxidative stress (Uttara et al., 2009). It has been shown that extreme levels of physical activity generate high levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), leading to oxidative damage to DNA, RNA, proteins, and lipids (Aguiló et al., 2005). Tsakiris et al. (2006) demonstrated that prolonged forced swimming induced increased levels of ROS in rats (Tsakiris et al., 2006). It has been demonstrated that intense physical activity results in oxidative stress in rodents as shown by a significant increase in brain glutathione peroxidase (Hara et al., 1997) and lipid peroxidation (Somani and Husain, 1996). Moreover, Rosa et al. (2007) demonstrated young adult mice undergoing 10 days of intense and exhaustive running program exhibited a high index of brain oxidative stress and impaired memory as assessed by fear conditioning. Recapitulating these effects in humans, Aguiló et al. (2005) demonstrated that intense mountain exercise leads to the generation of oxidative stress and high levels of ROS. While vitamin E, an essential anti-oxidant, typically inhibits the production of ROS during lipid peroxidation, intense physical activity in humans leads to a significant increase in vitamin E turnover that weakens antioxidant defence (Mastaloudis et al., 2001). Thus, although moderate levels of physical activity can enhance the antioxidant defence mechanisms, extreme levels of physical activity can deplete anti-oxidant reserve (Mastaloudis et al., 2001), leading to adverse neurological effects (Gomez-Cabrera et al., 2008). Alternatively, cytokines may modulate the negative effects of extreme physical activity. IL-6 is directly released by muscles during physical activity and activates the release of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) from the pituitary gland and increases cortisol levels (Mastorakos et al., 2005). Together, these studies suggest that extreme levels of physical activities may weaken the immune system either by reducing anti-oxidant defence or by altering cortisol levels.

Source: Frontiers | Neuroprotective effects of physical activity on the brain: a closer look at trophic factor signaling | Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience

Figure 4. Schematic representation of mechanisms by which increased physical activity leads to improved cognitive function. The figure depicts the two compartments alongside the blood brain barrier and the bidirectional relationship of BNDF between central and peripheral compartments. For instance, muscles, liver, and immune cells in the periphery impose a significant influence on the brain, particularly on the DG of the hippocampus. Conversely, BDNF has the ability to easily cross the BBB and influence multiple mechanisms in the periphery. The fact that TrkB receptors have been found in the spinal cord, DRGs, muscles, intestines, and kidneys suggests that BDNF can exert multiple regulatory effects on both sides of the BBB. Through co-activation of PGC1α and ERRα, physical activity induces the production of FNCD5. Following cleavage by a protease, FNDC5 is cleaved into irisin, which has the ability to cross the BBB and induce BDNF gene expression in the hippocampus. Notably, it has also been shown that high concentrations of IGF-1 are released by the liver and can, in turn, improve neurogenesis in the DG and induce BDNF gene expression.

Source: Frontiers | Neuroprotective effects of physical activity on the brain: a closer look at trophic factor signaling | Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience

BDNF is synthesized in the periphery by vascular endothelial cells, T-cells, B cells, monocytes (Kerschensteiner et al., 1999; Nakahashi et al., 2000) and skeletal muscles (Mousavi and Jasmin, 2006). Once released, BDNF can cross the BBB bi-directionally (Pan et al., 1998), resulting in a direct relationship between BDNF levels in plasma and the brain (Karege et al., 2002). While most of the BDNF that is produced peripherally is released into circulation, internalized, and stored in platelets, the BDNF produced by muscles is used locally at the neuromuscular junction (Fujimura et al., 2002; Matthews et al., 2009).

Source: Frontiers | Neuroprotective effects of physical activity on the brain: a closer look at trophic factor signaling | Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience

These data unequivocally demonstrate that human irisin exists, circulates, and is regulated by exercise.

Source: Detection and Quantitation of Circulating Human Irisin by Tandem Mass Spectrometry: Cell Metabolism

A myth or an myokine

Source: Does Irisin or FNDC5 exist in human circulation?

A new study finds that exercise releases a hormone that helps the body shed fat and keeps it from forming.

researchers at the University of Florida Health has learned more about how the hormone irisin helps convert calorie-storing white fat cells into brown fat cells that burn energy.

The investigators also discovered that irisin—which typically surges when the heart and other muscles are exerted—inhibits the formation of fatty tissue, making it an attractive target for fighting obesity and diabetes. Irisin appears to work by boosting the activity of genes and a protein that are crucial to turning white fat cells into brown cells. Additionally, the researchers found that irisin significantly increases the amount of energy used by those cells, indicating it has a role in burning fat.

In the study, the research team collected fat cells donated by 28 patients who had breast reduction surgery. After exposing the samples to irisin, they found a fivefold increase in cells that contain a protein known as UCP1, or uncoupling protein 1, that is crucial to lipid metabolism.

“Human primary adipocytes derived from 28 female donors’ fresh subcutaneous white adipose tissue (scWAT) were used to examine the effects of irisin on browning and mitochondrial respiration, and preadipocytes were used to examine the effects of irisin on adipogenesis and osteogenesis,” the authors wrote. “Cultured fragments of scWAT and perirenal brown fat were used for investigating signal transduction pathways that mediate irisin’s browning effect by Western blotting to detect phosphorylated forms of p38, ERK, and STAT3 as well as uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1). Individual responses to irisin in scWAT were correlated with basal expression levels of brown/beige genes. Irisin up-regulated the expression of browning-associated genes and UCP1 protein in both cultured primary mature adipocytes and fresh adipose tissues.”

The findings from this study were published recently in the American Journal of Physiology–Endocrinology and Metabolism in an article entitled “Irisin Exerts Dual Effects on Browning and Adipogenesis of Human White Adipocytes.”

“We used human fat tissue cultures to prove that irisin has a positive effect by turning white fat into brown fat and that it increases the body’s fat-burning ability,” explained senior study investigator Li-Jun Yang, M.D., professor of hematopathology at the University of Florida’s College of Medicine’s department of pathology, immunology, and laboratory medicine.

Dr. Yang and her colleagues also found that irisin suppressed fat-cell formation. Among the tested fat tissue samples, irisin reduced the number of mature fat cells by 20–60% compared with those of a control group. That suggests irisin reduces fat storage in the body by hindering the process that turns undifferentiated stem cells into fat cells while also promoting the stem cells’ differentiation into bone-forming cells.

Because more than two-thirds of U.S. adults are overweight or obese, according to the National Institutes of Health, knowing that the body produces small quantities of fat-fighting irisin highlights the importance of regular exercise.

“Instead of waiting for a miracle drug, you can help yourself by changing your lifestyle,” Dr. Yang stressed. “Exercise produces more irisin, which has many beneficial effects including fat reduction, stronger bones, and better cardiovascular health. Irisin can do a lot of things, and this is another piece of evidence about the mechanisms that prevent fat buildup and promote the development of healthy bones when you exercise.”

Source: Exercise Hormone has Dual Role in Shedding and Preventing Fat | GEN News Highlights | GEN

Sex doesn’t end as you age, so keep on using “it.”

Source: Use It Or Lose It: How Age, Hormones, And Masturbation Predict Sexual Health

The researchers found that the people with Crohn’s disease had significantly higher levels of two types of bacteria, called Escherichia coli and Serratia marcescens, and one fungus, called Candida tropicalis, compared with their healthy relatives and the other people in the study who did not have the disease, according to the study, published Sept. 20 in the journal mBio.Although previous research in mice has suggested that this fungus may be involved in Crohn’s, this is the first time it has been linked to the condition in people, the researchers said.Moreover, when the researchers examined these bacteria and fungus, they found that the three microorganisms worked together to form a so-called biofilm — a thin, sticky layer of microorganisms — that attaches itself to a portion of the gut. This biofilm could trigger the inflammation that causes the symptoms of Crohn’s disease, the researchers said. [5 Ways Gut Bacteria Affect Your Health]The new study “moves the field forward,” said Dr. Arun Swaminath, director of the inflammatory bowel disease program at Lenox Hill Hospital in New York City, who was not involved in the study. “The really neat thing they have done is to show how [these microorganisms] actually interact together,” to form the biofilm, he said.However, the study was conducted in a small group of patients in France and Belgium, and more research is needed to see if these findings would apply to patients in other countries, Swaminath said.Originally published on Live Science.Editor’s Recommendations Body Bugs: 5 Surprising Facts About Your Microbiome The Poop on Pooping: 5 Misconceptions Explained 8 Tips to Be a Probiotic Pro

Source: Cause of Crohn’s Disease: Gut Fungus Now Suspected

An estimated 180,890 American men will be diagnosed with prostate cancer this year. The disease will also take the lives of 26,120 patients. But according to a new 10-year study conducted on more than 1,500 men in the United Kingdom, those who are diagnosed may want to hold off on starting aggressive treatment right away.Typically, men who are diagnosed with prostate cancer are given several options: Have surgery to remove all or part of the gland, undergo radiotherapy to reduce any tumors, or take a “watch and wait” active monitoring approach, which involves additional screenings and biopsies but no treatment, as the cancer can grow so slowly that it often doesn’t present a medical problem for those who have it. The study, published Wednesday in the New England Journal of Medicine, found that men who received treatment ― either surgery or radiotherapy ― were better able to limit their cancer from spreading. But this didn’t necessarily mean immediate treatment led to better overall outcomes. Among the men who took a “watch and wait” approach, nearly half didn’t need any additional treatment. As a result, they avoided the negative side effects that come with surgery and radiation, such as bowel and urinary incontinence, sexual dysfunction and life-threatening cardiovascular issues. Indeed, no matter what approach the men were randomized to, they weren’t likely to die of either the cancer itself, cancer treatment or other causes after ten years. That said, the patients in this study are still being followed because deaths from prostate cancer are usually measured after 15 to 20 years. “This paper really underscores that an active surveillance approach is good for many patients, but there are some who still need upfront treatment,” said Dr. Timothy J. Daskivich, a urologic oncologist and director of health services research for the Cedars-Sinai department of surgery in Los Angeles. “Time will tell if we can sort these patients out in the future.”While some men will need immediate treatment, further developments that help urologists identify low-risk and high-risk patients will be key to making sure that only men who need it the most will have to undergo surgery or radiation.How outcomes differed according to the treatmentThe Prostate Testing for Cancer and Treatment (ProtecT) trial recruited U.K. men ages 50 to 69 from 1999 to 2009. Of 2,664 men who received a diagnosis of prostate cancer, 1,643 agreed to be randomized to any one of three of the most common prostate cancer treatments: active monitoring (545 men), radical prostatectomy (553 men) or radiotherapy (545 men).The men were not further classed into low- or high-risk groups based on the features of their tumor or the levels of prostate-specific antigens in their blood. This is what the researchers found: There was no difference in death rates. The scientists followed up with the men after a median of 10 years and found that while there were less prostate cancer-specific deaths in the groups that got radiation or surgery, the difference was not significant, and all groups had at least a 98.8 percent survival rate when it came to prostate cancer-specific deaths. In all, the death rate from prostate cancer across all groups was about one percent after a median of ten years.There was a difference in the rate of cancer spread. Of the men who were randomized to the active monitoring group, 112 experienced disease progression, including cancer spread, which was higher than in the surgery and radiation groups (46 and 46, respectively). While there appears to be a slight advantage to getting treated immediately after a prostate cancer diagnosis to avoid cancer progression, longer-term follow up is needed to see if these results are significant, the researchers wrote. What this means for U.S. menIn an opinion piece that accompanied the study, Dr. Anthony V. D’Amico of the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute concluded that when compared with surgery or radiation, active monitoring leads to increased cancer spread, and that active monitoring should only be an option for men who already have another life-shortening disease that is expected to result in death after less than 10 years. Daskivich, who was not involved with the study, was more optimistic about active monitoring’s place in prostate cancer care, and included “low-risk” men among those who should consider active monitoring instead of surgery or radiation, even though the study didn’t stratify men according to high or low risk cancers. However, doctors still need more tools that help them confidently sort patients according to risk.“It’s all about treatment selection ― picking out patients who have higher risk disease who should get treated upfront, and those who have lower risk features who don’t need to be treated and managed with active surveillance,” said Daskivich. “That’s going to be the challenge in the coming years.”The results of the study won’t change much for most middle-aged men in the U.S., Daskivich

Source: Treating Prostate Cancer Is Often No Better Than Doing Nothing | Huffington Post

After three months, more than a third of study participants grew back more than half of their lost hair

Source: Arthritis drug Xeljanz may help with the hair loss condition alopecia – CBS News

Drug deaths over the past 15 years have been rising so rapidly that experts say they’ve rarely, if ever, seen anything like it.

This is America on drugs: A visual guide

Updated 11:28 AM ET, Fri September 23, 2016

In modern history, few things have caused such a sharp spike in US deaths as drug overdoses.

CNN reached out to every state for the latest statistics on drug deaths, with half providing data from 2015. It found that drugs deaths continue to rise rapidly in many states.

FATAL ADDICTIONS

Epidemiologists in several states blame the increasing number of drug-related deaths on greater use of heroin and synthetic opioids, such as fentanyl.
“If you look at the cause of death, we just don’t normally see increases like this,” said Robert Anderson, the chief of the mortality statistics branch at the National Center for Health Care Statistics at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

TOP CAUSE OF ACCIDENTAL DEATHS

Drugs are the leading cause of accidental death in this country. Fatal overdoses surpassed shooting deaths and fatal traffic accidents years ago.
For perspective on how fast drug deaths have risen, Anderson said, consider the sharp rise in heart disease in the early half of the 20th century. It took about 50 years for the rate of heart disease to double. It took drug deaths a fraction of that time.
The only thing comparable might be the HIV epidemic when it first reached the United States in the late 1980s, when there were no drugs to treat it. But unlike with HIV, where demonstrators took to the streets to demand help, the drug epidemic often happened out of the spotlight.
That might be because drug deaths have disproportionately hit small towns and rural America, mainly in Appalachia and in the Southwest, far away from the eye of the national media. It became a particularly dangerous problem for middle-age white men and women.

HEROIN’S DEADLY EFFECT

Heroin-related deaths increased 439% from 1999 to 2014. As of 2014, heroin-related deaths had more than tripled in five years and quintupled in 10 years.
In 2014, opioids were involved in 28,647 deaths — 61% of all US drug overdose deaths — and 10,574 were related to heroin, in particular. Data from 2014 reflects “two distinct but interrelated trends,” the CDC notes, a longterm increase in overdose deaths due to prescription opioids and a surge in illicit opioid overdose deaths, mostly related to heroin.

NATIONWIDE EPIDEMIC

In 2010, West Virginia moved into the top spot on the list of states with the highest number of drug deaths. From 2014 to 2015 alone, the number of deaths in that state increased by 12%. New Hampshire saw a 24% increase in deaths in that same time period.
How to get help

Struggling with addiction or know someone who is? Here are several organizations that help addicts beat back their habits and regain their lives.

The state that has struggled the longest is New Mexico. Its Rio Arriba County has the highest number of drug deaths for a single county in the United States, according to data analysis of more than 15 years of records from the CDC and state departments of health. Looking at drug death data from 1999 to 2014, New Mexico most often holds the No. 1 spot for the highest number of deaths.
The sharp uptick in deaths seems to coincide with Americans’ increasing use of drugs like illicit fentanyl.
Pop star Prince died of a fentanyl overdose in April. The pain reliever is often given to cancer patients and is more than 100 times as strong as morphine and 30 to 50 times more powerful than heroin.

STATE HIT THE HARDEST

Appalachia has struggled with a number of high-profile overdose cases recently.
West Virginia is home to six of the top 20 counties in the country with the largest concentrations of drug-related deaths. Kentucky has the most, with nine counties on that list. Ohio has also been hard-hit by the epidemic.

Source: This is America on drugs: A visual guide – CNN.com

The opinions voiced in this material are for general information only and are not intended to provide specific advice or recommendations to any individual. For your individual planning and investing needs, please see your investment professional.

Jonathan DeYoe has been a financial advisor in San Francisco for the past two decades, giving him a first-row seat to the unprecedented explosion of wealth creation ushered in by tech industry. Here are his 10 best pieces of money advice.  

1. Put your money where your happiness is.

It is an incredible understatement to say the San Francisco Bay Area is an expensive place to live. Whether you come from money or just joined Facebook, you will have to make trade-offs to keep your head above water here — make the tradeoffs that are appropriate for you.

You don’t have to drive a Tesla, you aren’t required to live in a rad pad in the Mission, and you don’t need designer duds or the newest iGadget. Give up the trappings of success that hold no personal meaning for you and focus your financial resources on activities and affordable luxuries that build your particular brand of happiness, like a rock-climbing course and killer burritos.

2. Invest in yourself early and often.

If you are an engineer or scientist, you must stay on top of your technical game, but don’t hesitate to spend money on coaching or classes to develop your communication and leadership skills, as well.

If you are a professional, constantly hone your craft. Read broadly within your industry, enroll in continuing education, obtain advanced professional designations, and find opportunities to network with new people.

The dollars you dedicate to increasing your intellectual capacity and enhancing your ability to work well with others can boost your income substantially. Lifelong learning and professional development both lead to long-term success. The sooner you embark upon rigorous self-improvement, the longer you’ll enjoy the fruits of your labors, so invest in yourself now.

3. Don’t count your chickens before they’re hatched.

Equity compensation in the form of RSUs and stock-options can be a wonderful addition to your income and asset base. Over the years, I have seen many folks become wealthy through their company stock programs.

However, I have watched just as many stock compensation packages go up in smoke. Never forget that your stock has NO real value until you are fully vested and someone is willing to give you cash money for it on the open market. Just because a VC gives your company a sky-high valuation does not mean you’ll receive that valuation if (not when) the stock ever trades publicly.

Do not borrow against your stock. Do not pledge your stock as collateral to buy a massive house on Russian Hill. Do not count your stock among your REAL assets until it is actually part of your real assets. Better yet, don’t even count the eggs in your basket until you’ve hatched and sold them.

4. Get your foot in the front door.

Yes. The cost of housing in the Bay Area is ridiculous! When I read a 2015 San Francisco Chronicle article claiming that a Mountain View, California, resident was renting a tent in their backyard with bathroom access but no kitchen privileges for $900, I knew that we had all gone off the deep-end.

Today the median sales price for San Francisco homes is over $1.1 Million! No one is happy about real estate prices in the greater Bay Area, but if you are planning to stay here for five to seven years or more, consider buying a home. It doesn’t have to be beautiful or close-in. Alameda and Contra Costa counties are still relatively affordable. Just get your foot in the front door.

If you stay on the sidelines, don’t be surprised if the market continues to run away from you. Expect rare short-term dips, like we saw in 2008-2009, to effervesce quickly due to decades of housing policy that limited building.

And while many cities have strong rent-control laws, remaining a renter means your housing costs will continue to grow — perhaps pricing you out of the rental market and into that tent in someone’s backyard.

5. Turn a passion into a side hustle into a business.

First and foremost, do not neglect your day job. If your 9-to-5 office gig pays the bills and affords you ample pocket money, pursuing your passion for cooking by taking a second job as a sous-chef in a neighborhood restaurant won’t help you get ahead. You will burn out.

Nonetheless, there are hundreds of creative ways to capitalize on your hidden and not so hidden talents. My 11-year-old son bakes pies for neighbors, cat sits, and walks dogs. If you like baking or pets, why not?

You prefer to drive? Try Lyft or Uber. You love to write? Start a blog and learn how to drive traffic with social media. You’re a crack web designer? Register on freelance sites like Upwork or Hired.com. You have a spare bedroom? You get the idea!A driver displays Uber and Lyft ride sharing signs in his car windscreen in Santa Monica, California, U.S., May 23, 2016.  REUTERS/Lucy Nicholson/Files Finding a side hustle — like driving for Uber or Lyft — is a great idea, so long as you’re passionate about it and it won’t burn you out.Thomson Reuters

6. Create a financial road map.

Where do you want to go in life? As with any journey, if you have a specific destination in mind, you will need to take specific steps to get there. Planning your route is essential.

No one can afford to experience everything they want, but you can accomplish what is most important to you by creating a financial road map. Decide what tradeoffs you’re willing to make to achieve your goals. Take staycations until you’ve saved the down payment on a new house? Live with your old car six more months so that you can afford that new motorcycle next year? Drive Uber on week-ends to cover the cost of coding classes?

Where are you now? In debt? $20,000 away from that down payment? Underemployed? No need for shame. Accept your today and plan for a better tomorrow. What tradeoffs will you make? How much do you need to save? How are you going to get where you want to be? Planning makes things happen for you! NOT planning lets them happen to you.

7. Make your health a priority.

There are actually significant financial benefits to being healthy.

It probably comes as no surprise that healthier people have higher energy levels, improved resistance to illness, improved moods, higher self-esteem, better brain function, reduced fatigue, and less anxiety. But research indicates that healthier people may earn more and spend less, as well.

Good health while you’re young gives you the energy and focus to work harder and smarter, which can lead to better raises and more promotions, which translates into increased lifetime earnings. And good health later in life means fewer doctors visits, fewer medications, and hopefully decreased long-term care expenses as you age.

8. Save at least 10% of every dime you make.

Or, as the familiar saying goes, “Pay yourself first.”

Once you got your first “real” job and started earning more, you probably started spending more, too. If that trend continues every time you get a promotion or better job, you will never get ahead. At some point, you must make a conscious decision to save a specific portion of your income every single month. These savings will form the foundation upon which your entire financial life can be built.

Start by saving at least 10% of your gross salary every paycheck, and increase your savings 1% each year until you are saving 20% of your income. Use those initial savings to establish a cash emergency fund with six months to two years of living expenses. At the same time, take advantage of the tax breaks and “free” money you get from participating in your company’s 401(k) matching program. Next, pay-off your high interest debt. Then max out your 401(k), ROTH, and IRA combo, after consulting with your tax professional. The final step is to save even more in a taxable investment account and/or pay down your low interest debts.

9. Invest 90% of your liquid assets in an appropriately allocated, broadly diversified, and annually rebalanced basket of publicly traded securities.

I expect I will get some healthy Bay Area blow-back for this statement: Your investing prowess will not lead to “outperformance” in the long run.

Timing the markets, stock selection, and economic predictions may be an enduring part of the investment landscape, but none of those strategies offer a repeatable process for financial success. Luck often plays a much bigger role than skill when it comes to investment performance.

There is plenty of research on portfolio construction available to anyone willing to look. There is no evidence to support the idea that recent past performance will persist into the future or that folks dedicated to the timing and selection have been or will be successful doing so. Stock-picking requires repeated luck. Asset allocation, diversification, and rebalancing rely on something we can control, our consistent behavior, patience, and discipline.

10. Always be mindful of the big picture.

The course of human social and economic history expresses itself in a very long upward trend. That upward trend is often punctuated by short-term market upheavals, which are amplified by Wall Street and the financial press.

Stock markets and the financial media constantly over-correct in both directions in a seemingly endless cycle. Upside yields to downside. Excitement leads to despair. The good news? Today’s losses sow the seeds of future gain. You can’t consistently predict short-term outcomes because the economic and market details are ever-changing. Nonetheless, the big picture remains the same. Instead of reacting and over-reacting to the markets whims, be mindful of the big picture and stick to your thoughtfully constructed investment program and financial plan.

Jonathan K. DeYoe, AIF and CPWA, is the author of Mindful Money: Simple Practices for Reaching Your Financial Goals and Increasing Your Happiness Dividend. He is the founder and president of DeYoe Wealth Management in Berkeley, California, and blogs at the Happiness Dividend Blog. Financial planning and investment advisory services offered through DeYoe Wealth Management, Inc., a registered investment adviser.

Source: Best pieces of money advice from a San Francisco wealth advisor – Business Insider