Study shows the personal fingerprint of the bacteria, fungi, and viruses on our skin remains stable over time, despite regular cleaning and contact with contaminated objects.
Archive for October, 2016
Dr. Mercola discusses the role of B vitamins and other valuable nutrients to support brain health.
Reprinted with the kind permission of Dr. Mercola.
By Dr. Mercola
A number of studies have investigated the impact of vitamin supplementation to prevent and/or treat cognitive dysfunction and decline.
It’s well-established that healthy fats such as animal-based omega-3 fats are really important for brain health, but other nutrients such as vitamins are also necessary for optimal brain function.
Most recently, a Korean study1 concluded that giving a multivitamin supplement to seniors suffering from mild cognitive impairment and depression helped improve both conditions.
B vitamins in particular, especially folate (B9, aka folic acid in its synthetic form) and vitamins B6 and B12, have made headlines for their powerful role in preventing cognitive decline and more serious dementia such as Alzheimer’s disease.
Mental fogginess and problems with memory are actually two of the top warning signs that you have vitamin B12 deficiency, indicating its importance for brain health.
B Vitamins and Omega-3 — An Important Combo for Brain Health
“There was a significant interaction between B vitamin treatment and plasma combined omega-3 fatty acids (eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid) on brain atrophy rates.
B Vitamins Significantly Slow Brain Shrinkage
” … B vitamins lower homocysteine, which directly leads to a decrease in GM [gray matter] atrophy, thereby slowing cognitive decline.
|Nutrient||Dietary Sources||Supplement Recommendations|
Fatty fish that is low in mercury, such as wild-caught Alaskan salmon, sardines, and anchovies, as well as organic grass-fed beef.10
Sardines, in particular, are one of the most concentrated sources of omega-3 fats, with one serving containing more than 50 percent of your recommended daily value.
|Antarctic krill oil is a sustainable choice. It also has the added benefit of containing natural astaxanthin, which helps prevent oxidation.
Another good option is wild-caught Alaskan salmon oil.
|Vitamin B6||Turkey, beef, chicken, wild-caught salmon, sweet potatoes, potatoes, sunflower seeds, pistachios, avocado, spinach and banana.11,12||
Nutritional yeast is an excellent source of B vitamins, especially B6.13One serving (2 tablespoons) contains nearly 10 mg of vitamin B6.
Not to be confused with Brewer’s yeast or other active yeasts, nutritional yeast is made from an organism grown on molasses, which is then harvested and dried to deactivate the yeast.
It has a pleasant cheesy flavor and can be added to a number of different dishes. For tips, see this vegan blog post.14
|Folate (B9)||Fresh, raw, and organic leafy green vegetables, especially broccoli, asparagus, spinach, and turnip greens, and a wide variety of beans, especially lentils, but also pinto beans, garbanzo beans, navy and black beans, and kidney beans.15||
Folic acid is a synthetic type of B vitamin used in supplements; folate is the natural form found in foods.
Think: folate comes from foliage(edible leafy plants).
For folic acid to be of use, it must first be activated into its biologically active form — L-5-MTHF.
This is the form able to cross the blood-brain barrier to give you the brain benefits noted.
Nearly half of the population has difficulty converting folic acid into the bioactive form due to a genetic reduction in enzyme activity.
For this reason, if you take a B vitamin supplement, make sure it contains natural folate rather than synthetic folic acid.
Nutritional yeast is an excellent source.16
Vitamin B12 is found almost exclusively in animal tissues, including foods like beef and beef liver, lamb, snapper, venison, salmon, shrimp, scallops, poultry, eggs, and dairy products.
The few plant foods that are sources of B12 are actually B12 analogs that block the uptake of true B12.
Also consider limiting sugar and eating fermented foods.
The entire B group vitamin series is produced within your gut, assuming you have healthy gut flora.
Eating real food, ideally organic, along with fermented foods will provide your microbiome with important fiber and beneficial bacteria to help optimize your internal vitamin B production.
|Nutritional yeast is also high in B12, and is highly recommended for vegetarians and vegans.
One serving (2 tbsp) provides nearly 8 micrograms (mcg) of natural vitamin B12.17
Sublingual (under-the-tongue) fine mist spray or vitamin B12 injections are also effective, as they allow the large B12 molecule to be absorbed directly into your bloodstream.
|Vitamin C||Sweet peppers, chili peppers, Brussel sprouts, broccoli, artichoke, sweet potato, tomato, cauliflower, kale, papaya, strawberries, oranges, kiwi, grapefruit, cantaloupe, and lemon.
To boost your intake of fruits and vegetables, consider juicing. As an alternative, you can also make fermented vegetables at home.
The vitamin C in sauerkraut (fermented cabbage) is about six times higher than in the same helping of unfermented cabbage, so it’s an excellent way to boost your vitamin C intake.
The most effective form of oral vitamin C is liposomal vitamin C.
It’s not associated with many of the complications of traditional vitamin C or ascorbic acid (such as gastrointestinal distress), which will allow you to achieve higher intracellular concentrations.
You can expect a significant rise in plasma vitamin C concentration at doses between 30 and 100 mg/day.
Taking vitamin C frequently throughout the day is more effective than taking one large dose once a day.
|Vitamin D||Vitamin D is created naturally when your skin is exposed to sunshine.
While you can get some vitamin D from grass-fed meats and other whole foods and fortified foods, sun exposure is an ideal primary source.
|When taking supplemental vitamin D, also be sure to increase your intake of vitamin K2 and magnesium, either from food or a supplement.|
Sources and References
Many of the participants in that study no longer met the criteria for FM after it: that’s a criteria for success that few FM studies are willing to even contemplate using.The study also required the surgical implantation of a vagus nerve stimulator. That’s an option – running somewhere around 30-40K – that’s available to few. Thankfully non-invasive vagus nerve stimulators worn on the ear have and are being developed.See “Reborn” – Reversing Fibromyalgia with Vagus Nerve StimulationWhen a recent three part review did an overview of our understanding of what the vagus nerve does, how vagus nerve stimulation works and how it effective it is, I jumped on it. This blog took the following papers as a foundation. Vagus Nerve and Vagus Nerve Stimulation, a Comprehensive Review: Part I. Yuan H, Silberstein SD. Headache. 2015 Sep 14. doi: 10.1111/head.12647. [Epub ahead of print] Review. Vagus Nerve and Vagus Nerve Stimulation, a Comprehensive Review: Part II. Yuan H, Silberstein SD. Headache. 2015 Sep 18. doi: 10.1111/head.12650. [Epub ahead of print] Review. Vagus Nerve and Vagus Nerve Stimulation, a Comprehensive Review: Part III. Yuan H, Silberstein SD. Headache. 2015 Sep 14. doi: 10.1111/head.12649. [Epub ahead of print] Review.Besides the fibromyalgia study, the vagus nerve is of particular interest in both fibromyalgia and chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) because of the role it plays in regulating the autonomic nervous and immune systems providing sensory and other information to the brain and Michael Van Elzakker’s Vagus Nerve Hypothesis – Van Elzakker suspects small infections in or around the vagus nerve could be triggering it to tell the brain to produce flu-like symptoms in people with chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS). A pilot study to assess that possibility is underway now.The Wanderer Called the wanderer, the vagus nerve is the longest “cranial nerve” (a nerve that emanates from the head) in the body. Attaching at the medulla at the bottom of the brainstem, the many fingers of the vagus nerve reach down our torso to infiltrate most of our organs. The extensive network it forms – it’s the largest neural network in the body – provides a pathway through which information is sent to the brain regarding the status of our organs.Vagus nerves densely innervate every ‘sensing area’ of the body with a particular focus on the walls of the blood vessels throughout the body and the digestive system. The vagus nerve regulates our heart and breathing rates, blood pressure and blood flow via receptors in the blood vessels that monitor O2, CO2, and pH levels in the blood and blood pressure.Autonomic-nervous-systemIn the gut the vagus nerve controls gut movements (motility), secretions, inflammatory responses, the integrity of the gut lining and even appetite. Reflexive movements like coughing, gagging and vomiting are all controlled by the vagus nerve.If a pathogen is present the vagus nerve will let your brain know that. If you’ve cut your finger, are feeling hot or cold, or have just eaten something – the vagus nerve will let your brain know that.Ultimately information on touch, heat/cold, pain and chemical, metabolic, and hormonal operations of the organs is all transmitted via the vagus nerve to the brain. It effects the functioning of every system – from the immune to endocrine to the hormonal system – in our body.Immune Regulator The last ten or twenty years have revealed that the vagus nerve (VN) is a significant immune system regulator. The cholinergic anti-inflammatory immune response it regulates mostly takes place in the spleen.Think of the spleen as an enormous lymph node which dictates much of the innate or early immune response. Besides filtering blood the spleen synthesizes antibodies, removes bacteria and plays host to half the monocytes found in the body. These monocytes – which turn into dendritic cells and macrophages play a key role in the innate or early immune response, which plays a key role in producing many inflammatory states.The cholinergic anti-inflammatory response has been shown to reduce the levels of a wide variety of inflammatory cytokines. Studies are underway to assess the ability of VNS to reduce inflammation in diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and inflammatory bowel disease.Autonomic Nervous System Regulator The vagus nerve’s effects on autonomic nervous system functioning could easily account for the benefits thus far seen in fibromyalgia and other pain disorders. The vagus nerve boosts the activity of the parasympathetic nervous system (rest and digest) and reduces sympathetic nervous system (fight or flight) system.Reduced heart rate variability findings suggest that reduced parasympthetic nervous system functioning is present in both ME/CFS and FM. Reduced HRV has been associated with increased sympathetic nervous system activity, pain and sleep and cognitive problems in ME/CFS and/or FM.Because VNS increases heart rate variability it’s possible tha
Symptoms of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth, according to the SIBO Center for Digestive Health, include:
Heartburn (reflux or GERD)
Respiratory symptoms (such as asthma)
Mood symptoms (such as depression)
Brain symptoms (such as autism)
Steatorrhea (fatty stools)
Iron deficiency anemia
Vitamin B12 deficiency
Research from the University of Southern California published in the Journal of the American Medical Association indicated that the symptoms of SIBO were nearly universal to those symptoms associated with irritable bowel syndrome.
When colonic bacteria move out of the colon and into the small intestine, a condition called small intestinal bacterial overgrowth, develops.30 Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth is associated with carbohydrate malabsorption and may also result in intestinal inflammation. This inflammatory response can then cause the normally tight intestinal barrier to leak, permitting bacteria and toxins to enter the bloodstream, where they may contribute to symptoms of food allergy and food sensitivity.10-12
1. Remove harmful toxins. Eliminating foods Becca was sensitive to was the first step; we identified them with a food allergy test. She ended up taking out gluten, dairy, eggs, bananas, potatoes, corn and a few other vegetables. I also had her remove red meat from her diet. I also wanted to eradicate the yeast and parasites in her body. This we did with a combination of anti-fungal and antibacterial botanicals. She concentrated on eating a diet heavy in fish, poultry, vegetables, rice, olive and coconut oil.2. Replace digestive functionality. Often, bloating and gas indicates poor digestive capability and, indeed, Becca’s CDSA test confirmed that. We had her take a digestive enzyme with every meal.3. Re-inoculate the gut with good bacteria. Probiotics (20-30 billion live organisms) at each meal were necessary to improve intestinal immune function.4. Repair the gut lining. It’s imperative to heal the gut lining with things like l-glutamine, fish oils and n-acetyl-d-glucosamine.5. A few other things we did: biotherapeutic drainage to detoxify her liver, adrenal support with adaptogenic herbs, lots of greens drinks to provide energy and aid in detox, and stress reduction techniques such as craniosacral therapy.
By Alicia Nadil
Do you remember how easy it was in youth to consume a high-calorie meal and suffer no unpleasant aftereffects?
One reason we internally managed foods so easily back in those days were the massive amounts of digestive juices we produced that efficiently broke down foods for healthy absorption.
Contrast this to what many adults take after meals, such as over-the-counter drugs like Alka-Seltzer® and Pepto-Bismol® to relieve gas, bloating, cramping, and other digestive problems. These drugs can provide temporary relief, but they don’t treat the underlying cause of the problem.
Over-the-counter drugs are a huge business.1,2 In the United States alone, people with digestive discomfort spend $9.5 billion on over-the-counter stomach remedies, and studies show that people taking such medications commonly report not thinking that their problem was serious enough to seek medical attention.2-4
A national survey in 2013 demonstrated that 72% of respondents experienced one or more symptoms such as diarrhea, gas, bloating, stomach pain, frequent bowel movements, unexplained weight loss, or nonspecific abdominal discomfort and 74% of those surveyed reported living with their symptoms for more than six months.4
Unfortunately, over-the-counter drugs could be masking a more serious issue.
After-meal abdominal symptoms often represent poor digestion of complex foods, causing one to be unable to fully absorb nutrients needed for optimal health. This can lead to chronic low-level malnutrition and/or stomach distress after most meals.5,6
A common cause of these widespread digestive problems is the age-related decline of active enzymes that help break down foods into absorbable nutrients.7-9
A second major cause of abdominal symptoms in older adults is the chronic imbalance of the trillions of beneficial organisms that populate our gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Such disturbances contribute to nutrient malabsorption, while also producing inflammation that can weaken the intestinal barrier and allow bacteria and toxins into the circulation where they may aggravate food allergies and sensitivities.10-13
Fortunately, studies show that it is possible to address both of these underlying causes of gastro-intestinal distresses. By properly supplementing with digestive enzymes and probiotics, healthy older adults can take meaningful steps to maintain good digestive health. The result can be better digestion, less abdominal stress, and greater retention of nutrients.
Why Digestive Enzymes Are so Important
In order for the food we eat to be absorbed into our bloodstream, the actions of powerful enzymes are required to break down the food in order to extract vital nutrients. Each of the three major food groups—carbohydrates, proteins, and fats—must be broken down by specific enzymes before being absorbed by cells in the digestive tract.
When the digestive tract is in good working order, food is almost completely broken down by the time it reaches the end of our small intestine, leaving few undigested food molecules to pass into the colon. The result is a well-nourished body that continuously renews itself, and a comfortable sensation following a meal.
With age, the production of normal digestive enzymes begins to fall off, leaving significant amounts of all three major food groups (fats, proteins, and carbohydrates) to pass undigested into the large intestine, or colon.8,9,14
This can lead to bloating, gas, diarrhea, and cramping—and even worse, can contribute to the malnutrition that threatens older people as a result of lost appetite and changes in muscle and fat stores.15,16 That’s why the proper complement of healthy enzymes is crucial not just for healthy digestion—but for good health in general.
What You Need to Know
Enzymes and Probiotics for Healthy Digestion
- Research indicates over 70% of Americans report feeling discomfort, bloating, gas, cramps, or urgency to defecate following a meal.
- This problem is especially prevalent in older adults, whose natural production of digestive enzymes dwindles with age.
- Loss of normal balance of beneficial gastrointestinal microbes further exacerbates symptoms.
- Supplementation with digestive enzymes that break down starches, protein, fats, and fiber is a proven method to reduce symptoms and improve nutritional status.
- Supplementation with B. coagulans, a beneficial probiotic microbe, can further improve comfort and reduce symptoms by balancing your population of intestinal organisms.
- If you suffer from any degree of discomfort following what should be a pleasant and fulfilling meal, it’s time to add digestive enzymes and sustainable probiotic bacteria to your regimen.
Improving Digestive Comfort and Function
A natural solution to declining levels of digestive enzymes is to supplement with digestive enzymes that cover the major needs of the body to break down all classes of food, including starch, proteins, fats, cellulose, and milk.
For optimal digestion, it is important to include these major digestive enzymes:
- Amylase to break down starch and short sugar chains called oligosaccharides,
- Protease to help break down proteins,
- Lipase to break down fats,
- Cellulase to break down the indigestible polysaccharide in dietary cellulose, and
- Lactase to break down lactose (milk sugar).
People suffering from pancreatic insufficiency as a result of cystic fibrosis, pancreatic surgery, or trauma have long used supplemental digestive enzymes.17 But researchers have recognized that the addition of digestive enzymes is beneficial to healthy individuals as well.
In various studies, each of these major enzymes has shown specific benefits in digesting food.
Animal studies have repeatedly demonstrated that when supplemental digestive enzymes are added to the normal food supply, they can significantly improve digestibility of dietary foods, improve nutrient absorption, reduce gas production, and, in at least one case, reduce food intake, as a result of improved nutritional status.5,18,19 Furthermore, in stressed or aged animals, a mix of pancreatic digestive enzymes improved muscle wasting in addition to the other benefits.5
Human studies are now revealing similarly impressive results for supplemental digestive enzymes. In a study of adults with chronic pancreatic insufficiency, in which the subjects were unable to fully digest and absorb fats and proteins, researchers tested two pancreatic enzyme replacement products. A supplement with bromelain proved significantly more effective at improving both protein and fat digestion and absorption.20
Pancreatic lipase (the fat-digesting enzyme) has been routinely used for years in people with pancreatic insufficiency to assist with digestion.21 A study in healthy volunteers demonstrated that the use of this enzyme could be beneficial in others as well.
For the study, subjects ate 185 grams (about 6 ounces) of cookies containing 1,196 calories and 72 grams (about 2.5 ounces) of fat, along with capsules of lipase or a placebo.22 They were then followed for up to 17 hours. Compared to placebo patients, patients supplemented with lipase showed significant reductions in bloating over the entire period, with significant reductions in bloating, gas, and fullness later in the day.
Lactase , the enzyme that breaks down lactose, or “milk sugar,” is sharply reduced in adults from everywhere except Northern Europe, and both human and animal studies demonstrate that this lactase deficiency increases with advancing age.8,23 Deficiency of lactase produces a condition known as lactose intolerance, characterized by cramps, bloating, gas, and often diarrhea following consumption of milk products. Lactose intolerance is known to be a significant problem in the elderly, and can lead to insufficient calcium intake, resulting in greater risks of osteoporosis and subsequent fractures.9,24,25 Thus, it is especially important in older adults to be capable of comfortably consuming milk products to help avoid osteoporosis.
Studies show that supplementation with lactase produces a significant reduction in excretion of hydrogen in the breath (a marker of improved lactose digestion), while also significantly reducing symptoms of abdominal cramping, belching, flatulence, bloating, and diarrhea.26
Consuming these specific digestive enzymes would provide comprehensive assistance to one’s ability to digest foods in a more youthful and tolerant fashion—and would also help relieve discomforts after eating, as well as improve your overall nutritional status.
The Five Most Prevalent Digestive Enzymes
Each major food group has a specific type of enzyme responsible for its breakdown. Deficiency in any of these enzymes can lead to a wide range of common intestinal troubles. There are five major digestive enzymes that need to be at healthy levels for the digestion of food without painful or embarrassing side effects. These include amylase, protease, lipase, cellulose, and lactase.
Carbohydrates and starches are digested by the enzyme amylase. A deficiency in amylases causes undigested carbohydrate molecules to pass on to the colon, where gut organisms break them down, literally fermenting them to produce carbon dioxide and water that lead to cramping, flatulence, and diarrhea.41,42,43
Proteins are digested by the protease enzymes. A deficiency in proteases leaves protein molecules or fragments undigested. Again, these pass on to the colon, in this case giving rise to a host of unpleasant-smelling and potentially toxic molecules.44-47 Undigested protein in the colon has also been associated with colon cancer initiation, though the exact mechanisms are still under investigation.48
Fats are digested by the lipase enzymes. A deficiency in lipases leaves long-chain fats undigested. Undigested fats cannot be absorbed anywhere in the body and are typically passed on through the GI tract to produce greasy, fatty stools, cramping, and even malnutrition when fat-soluble vitamins are lost.17
Though several different digestive system organs produce some digestive enzymes, the pancreas makes all three of these essential digestive enzymes.49 Loss of pancreatic function is therefore a common cause of after-meal indigestion and other symptoms. Pancreatic insufficiency was long thought to be found only in patients with disorders of the pancreas itself, such as cystic fibrosis, pancreatitis, or pancreatic tumors. However, it is now recognized as being associated with aging.9,17,50,51 One recent study found pancreatic insufficiency in more than 7% of a large group of patients with general abdominal pain and discomfort.32
Cellulase is the enzyme that breaks down cellulose, the indigestible polysaccharide in dietary fiber.52 Fiber is increasingly recognized as vital for healthy digestion because, though humans cannot break it down, it feeds the beneficial organisms in our colons, which use it to produce beneficial short-chain fatty acids that nourish our colonic cells and help to prevent cancer.53 But, precisely because we cannot digest fiber ourselves, it can produce symptoms of bloating, flatulence, diarrhea, and constipation when broken down by our intestinal tenants.54
Lastly, lactase is the enzyme that breaks down milk sugar (lactose).55 A deficiency in lactase can prevent the body from breaking down lactose, leading to lactose intolerance, which can lead to abdominal cramping, belching, flatulence, diarrhea, and bloating.56
In addition to having reduced levels of digestive enzymes, another cause of digestive malfunction and after-meal discomfort occurs when the normal microbial populations become imbalanced.27
The body relies heavily on the teeming communities of bacteria that live in the large intestine, or colon. Like any community, this group of microbes, collectively known as the intestinal microbiome, functions best when its occupants are richly diverse and respect one another’s boundaries. If those properties are not present, symptoms of indigestion may arise.28,29
When colonic bacteria move out of the colon and into the small intestine, a condition called small intestinal bacterial overgrowth, develops.30 Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth is associated with carbohydrate malabsorption and may also result in intestinal inflammation. This inflammatory response can then cause the normally tight intestinal barrier to leak, permitting bacteria and toxins to enter the bloodstream, where they may contribute to symptoms of food allergy and food sensitivity.10-12
A related condition is intestinal dysbiosis, in which the natural balance of beneficial bacteria living in the gut becomes disturbed.31 This is a huge and growing area of medical research, as researchers learn that it does not take a true pathogen (disease-causing organism) to produce abdominal symptoms and increase the risk for a host of life-shortening disorders.
In fact, simply having the wrong mix of bacteria in your intestines can set the stage for obesity, cardiovascular disease, and many other chronic, age-associated conditions.32,33 Studies show that as many as 73% of people with abdominal complaints have some form of dysbiosis.32
In addition to causing GI discomfort and related symptoms, all of these problems can contribute to malnutrition, a serious and growing problem in older adults—one that exacerbates their frailty and vulnerability to falls, fractures, and infections.34
Fortunately, supplementing with probiotic bacteria can help alleviate the digestive issues that can occur as a result of microbial imbalance.
Easing Abdominal Symptoms with Probiotic Bacteria
Beneficial bacteria are essential for maintaining proper balance among the trillions of organisms living in the intestines. Low growth of the “good guys” can lead to overgrowth and imbalance of organisms less directly beneficial (and some directly harmful) to the body’s health.
Studies show that probiotic organisms (which are cultures of living beneficial bacteria) can help reduce abdominal symptoms and promote healthy intestinal function by promoting their own and other beneficial organisms’ growth and suppressing that of less useful bacteria.35,36
The MTCC 5856 strain of Bacillus coagulans (formerly known as Lactobacillus sporogenes) is especially beneficial because it is coated in a tough outer layer that resists digestion in the stomach and small intestine.35,37 This allows it to be delivered intact to the large intestine, where it can then “hatch” out to set up new colonies in a sustainable fashion.35,37,38
It takes an estimated four hours from ingestion to germination in the intestine. However, over time, it is gradually excreted and needs to be replenished with fresh supplementation.36,37
Once established, B. coagulans produces lactic acid, which is a useful chemical that helps suppress the growth of disease-causing bacteria and promotes its own growth.35,37,38 Lactic acid bacteria are commonly used as “starter cultures,” in fermented foods such as yogurt, kimchi, sauerkraut, kefir, sourdough bread, pickles, and many other healthful foods.35 Furthermore, production of lactic acid is the result of the presence of lactase, the digestive enzyme that breaks down lactose, and is missing in so many adults.37,39
B. coagulans also produces bacteriocins, which are compounds that help maintain a healthy balance of bacteria by limiting the growth of less desirable bacteria.35,37
The value of this resilient B. coagulans strain of bacteria has been shown in studies of people with gastrointestinal issues, such as chronic constipation, chronic diarrhea, and irritable bowel syndrome.
A study of people with chronic constipation showed that 70% of subjects had improvement in abdominal distension and normalization of stools following supplementation with 300 to 750 million spores of B. coagulans per day for up to 10 days.37
A study of patients with acute or chronic diarrhea demonstrated, in a randomized fashion, that probiotic supplementation with either B. coagulans or another commonly used organism called Bifidobacterium longum produced good relief from symptoms.
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common and difficult-to-treat condition that can cause diarrhea and constipation, along with significant abdominal discomfort, gas, and bloating. In a multi-center, randomized, double-blind controlled study of IBS patients, daily supplementation with tablets containing 2 billion spores of B. coagulans was found to significantly reduce symptom scores, abdominal discomfort scores, stool quality, and physicians’ overall assessment scores.40 Additionally, the patients receiving the probiotic bacteria showed improvement in bloating, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, and stool frequency, compared with control subjects.
The digestive tract changes with age. The amounts of digestive enzymes the body produces decline over time, leaving undigested food molecules free to pass into the colon where they ferment and produce noxious gas, bloating, cramping, and diarrhea.
Adding to this challenge, the body’s normally helpful tenants, the microbes living in the colon, become disruptive and imbalanced, potentially invading the small intestine where they can produce inflammation and poor digestion.
In human studies, supplemental digestive enzymes have provided increased digestive comfort and reduction in common symptoms of indigestion. And supplementation with probiotic B. coagulans bacteria not only boosts the population of good bacteria, but also results in production of natural bacterial compounds that suppress less beneficial, or even overtly harmful, bacteria. These changes have been demonstrated to improve after-meal comfort while restoring the natural balance of organisms in the intestinal tract.
For those troubled by bloating, cramps, gas, loose stools, or other digestive symptoms following a normal meal, restoring normal enzymes and intestinal microbial population could help alleviate after-meal distress.
If you have any questions on the scientific content of this article, please call a Life Extension® Health Advisor at 1-866-864-3027.
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- Available at: http://goo.gl/kyZrkD. Accessed August 6, 2013.
- Farges MC, Vasson MP, Davot P, et al. Supplementation of oral nutrition with pancreatic enzymes improves the nutritional status of aged endotoxemic rats. Nutrition. 1996;12(3):189-94.
- Available at: http://goo.gl/JttyqX. 2008. Accessed August 6, 2013.
- Di Stefano M, Veneto G, Malservisi S, Strocchi A, Corazza GR. Lactose malabsorption and intolerance in the elderly. Scand J Gastroenterol. 2001;36(12):1274-8.
- Baum BJ, Levine RL, Kuyatt BL, Sogin DB. Rat parotid gland amylase: evidence for alterations in an exocrine protein with increased age. Mech Aging Dev. 1982;19(1):27-35.
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- Bures J, Cyrany J, Kohoutova D, et al. Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth syndrome. World J Gastroenterol. 2010;16(24):2978-90.
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- Vitetta L, Manuel R, Zhou JY, Linnane AW, Hall S, Coulson S. The overarching influence of the gut microbiome on end-organ function: the role of live probiotic cultures. Pharmaceuticals (Basel). 2014;7(9):954-89.
- Vellas B, Balas D, Moreau J, et al. Exocrine pancreatic secretion in the elderly. Int J Pancreatol. 1988;3(6):497-502.
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- Friess H, Michalski CW. Diagnosing exocrine pancreatic insufficiency after surgery: when and which patients to treat. HPB (Oxford). 2009;11 Suppl 3:7-10.
- Dominguez-Muñoz JE. Pancreatic enzyme therapy for pancreatic exocrine insufficiency. Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2011;7(6):401-3.
- Eun JS, Beauchemin KA. Effects of a proteolytic feed enzyme on intake, digestion, ruminal fermentation, and milk production. J Dairy Sci. 2005;88(6):2140-53.
- Omogbenigun FO, Nyachoti CM, Slominski BA. Dietary supplementation with multienzyme preparations improves nutrient utilization and growth performance in weaned pigs. J Anim Sci. 2004;82(4):1053-61.
- Knill-Jones RP, Pearce H, Batten J, Williams R. Comparative trial of Nutrizym in chronic pancreatic insufficiency. BMJ. 1970;4(5726):21-4.
- Griffin SM, Alderson D, Farndon JR. Acid resistant lipase as replacement therapy in chronic pancreatic exocrine insufficiency: a study in dogs. Gut. 1989;30(7):1012-5.
- Suarez F, Levitt MD, Adshead J, Barkin JS. Pancreatic supplements reduce symptomatic response of healthy subjects to a high fat meal. Dig Dis Sci. 1999;44(7):1317-21.
- Misselwitz B, Pohl D, Fruhauf H, Fried M, Vavricka SR, Fox M. Lactose malabsorption and intolerance: pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment. United European Gastroenterol J. 2013;1(3):151-9.
- Kuhn RJ, Gelrud A, Munck A, Caras S. CREON (Pancrelipase Delayed-Release Capsules) for the treatment of exocrine pancreatic insufficiency. Adv Ther. 2010;27(12):895-916.
- Park S, Johnson MA. What is an adequate dose of oral vitamin B12 in older people with poor vitamin B12 status? Nutr Rev. 2006;64(8):373-8.
- Sanders SW, Tolman KG, Reitberg DP. Effect of a single dose of lactase on symptoms and expired hydrogen after lactose challenge in lactose-intolerant subjects. Clin Pharm. 1992;11(6):533-8.
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- De Vos WM, de Vos EA. Role of the intestinal microbiome in health and disease: from correlation to causation. Nutr Rev. 2012;70 Suppl 1:S45-56.
- Semova I, Carten JD, Stombaugh J, et al. Microbiota regulate intestinal absorption and metabolism of fatty acids in the zebrafish. Cell Host Microbe. 2012;12(3):277-88.
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For decades, neuroscientists and physicians have tried to get to the bottom of the age-old mystery of post-traumatic stress disorder, to explain why only some people are vulnerable and why they experience so many symptoms and so much disability.
All experts in the field now agree that PTSD indeed has its roots in very real, physical processes within the brain — and not in some sort of psychological “weakness.” But no clear consensus has emerged about what exactly has gone “wrong” in the brain.
In a Perspective article published this week in Neuron, a pair of University of Michigan Medical School professors — who have studied PTSD from many angles for many years — put forth a theory of PTSD that draws from and integrates decades of prior research. They hope to stimulate interest in the theory and invite others in the field to test it.
The bottom line, they say, is that people with PTSD appear to suffer from disrupted context processing. That’s a core brain function that allows people and animals to recognize that a particular stimulus may require different responses depending on the context in which it is encountered. It’s what allows us to call upon the “right” emotional or physical response to the current encounter.
A simple example, they write, is recognizing that a mountain lion seen in the zoo does not require a fear or “flight” response, while the same lion unexpectedly encountered in the backyard probably does.
For someone with PTSD, a stimulus associated with the trauma they previously experienced — such as a loud noise or a particular smell — triggers a fear response even when the context is very safe. That’s why they react even if the noise came from the front door being slammed, or the smell comes from dinner being accidentally burned on the stove.
Context processing involves a brain region called the hippocampus, and its connections to two other regions called the prefrontal cortex and the amygdala. Research has shown that activity in these brain areas is disrupted in PTSD patients. The U-M team thinks their theory can unify wide-ranging evidence by showing how a disruption in this circuit can interfere with context processing and can explain most of the symptoms and much of the biology of PTSD.
“We hope to put some order to all the information that’s been gathered about PTSD from studies of human patients, and of animal models of the condition,” says Israel Liberzon, M.D., a professor of psychiatry at U-M and a researcher at the VA Ann Arbor Healthcare System who also treats veterans with PTSD. “We hope to create a testable hypothesis, which isn’t as common in mental health research as it should be. If this hypothesis proves true, maybe we can unravel some of the underlying pathophysiological processes, and offer better treatments.”
Liberzon and his colleague, James Abelson, M.D., Ph.D., describe in their piece models of PTSD that have emerged in recent years, and lay out the evidence for each. The problem, they say, is that none of these models sufficiently explains the various symptoms seen in patients, nor all of the complex neurobiological changes seen in PTSD and in animal models of this disorder.
The first model, abnormal fear learning, is rooted in the amygdala — the brain’s ‘fight or flight’ center that focuses on response to threats or safe environments. This model emerged from work on fear conditioning, fear extinction and fear generalization.
The second, exaggerated threat detection, is rooted in the brain regions that figure out what signals from the environment are “salient,” or important to take note of and react to. This model focuses on vigilance and disproportionate responses to perceived threats.
The third, involving executive function and regulation of emotions, is mainly rooted in the prefrontal cortex — the brain’s center for keeping emotions in check and planning or switching between tasks.
By focusing only on the evidence bolstering one of these theories, researchers may be “searching under the streetlight,” says Liberzon. “But if we look at all of it in the light of context processing disruption, we can explain why different teams have seen different things. They’re not mutually exclusive.”
The main thing, says Liberzon, is that “context is not only information about your surroundings — it’s pulling out the correct emotion and memories for the context you are in.”
A deficit in context processing would lead PTSD patients to feel “unmoored” from the world around them, unable to shape their responses to fit their current contexts. Instead, their brains would impose an “internalized context” — one that always expects danger — on every situation.
This type of deficit, arising in the brain from a combination of genetics and life experiences, may create vulnerability to PTSD in the first place, they say. After trauma, this would generate symptoms of hypervigilance, sleeplessness, intrusive thoughts and dreams, and inappropriate emotional and physical outbursts.
Liberzon and Abelson think that testing the context processing theory will enhance understanding of PTSD, even if all of its details are not verified. They hope the PTSD community will help them pursue the needed research, in PTSD patients and in animal models. They put forth specific ideas in the Neuron paper to encourage that, and are embarking on such research themselves.
The U-M/VA team is currently recruiting people with PTSD — whether veterans or not — for studies involving brain imaging and other tests.
In the meantime, they note that there is a growing set of therapeutic tools that can help patients with PTSD, such as cognitive behavioral therapy mindfulness training and pharmacological approaches. These may work by helping to anchor PTSD patients in their current environment, and may prove more effective as researchers learn how to specifically strengthen context processing capacities in the brain.
“I keep seeing my neighbor’s pool in winter, just an empty bowl of dusty blue tiles. Imagine standing in the middle of that, when suddenly, the pool fills up. In an instant, you’re drowning.”
I want to explain a little understood mental illness: borderline personality disorder, or BPD.
Between 1 and 2 percent of people suffer from BPD. Women are up to three times more likely to have it than men. It is often connected to (or misdiagnosed as) another mental illnesses, which means it can get lost in other, bigger discussions. It can blend in with depression, anxiety, and bipolar disorder. It might be genetic, or it may result from trauma. It might also be both, or neither.
It is hard to offer a simple medical definition of BPD, but I’ve heard it brilliantly summed up as “chronic irrationality.” Think severe mood swings, impulsivity, instability, and a whole lot of explosive anger.
BPD feels like floating above a dinner party, above the chitchat and laughter, looking down at the smiling people who understand one another, and thinking: Why not me?
It sends you into spirals of self-doubt and hatred. It makes you feel like a tangled slinky, forever bumping inelegantly down a flight of stairs. You know something within you is twisted, and even once you’re told what, you’re left wondering why.
There’s always this stifling sense of isolation. I say “sense” because I can be surrounded by the most supportive friends and still think they’re out to get me, or mocking me behind my back. The tragedy of BPD is that it runs on such solipsism that it inverts me as a person. I become toxically narcissistic—self-hating to the point where I irrationally project my emotional insecurities onto those around me.
It almost goes without saying that it’s hard to maintain relationships. The combination of feeling absolutely nothing while flinching at everything doesn’t make for a whole lot of fun. BPD makes me lash out, allowing some of the cruelest things to tumble from my mouth. And believe me, there are only so many times loved ones will forgive a lack of control.
People often discuss BPD by describing an “emptiness.” For me, it’s more an oscillation between the impossibly empty and the impossibly full. I keep seeing my neighbor’s pool in winter, just an empty bowl of dusty blue tiles. Imagine standing in the middle of that, when suddenly the pool fills up. In an instant, you’re drowning. People describe BPD like that: a flip. A big switch going off in an invisible instant.
I think it’s this erratic oscillation that makes BPD so hard to communicate—particularly to those who are close. Because on the surface it looks like I’m just being an ornery prick. Like all mental illness, it’s best treated with patience and empathy. And unfortunately, like depression or hypomania, it places the onus on people who are not necessarily in a position to help or understand, no matter how much they may care for you. In a relationship, BPD can leave both parties feeling isolated.
It brings out my mean streak something shocking. I’ve always had a devilish way with words, particularly nasty ones, and BPD is like a Terminator vision that highlights the chinks in everyone’s armor. Unlike my mania, which tends to make me charismatic and eloquent, a BPD “turn” or “moment” sees me turn sour and crude.
I remember once wagging a butter knife at my friend’s mom and her baby-boomer friends at their dinner table after they were bemoaning the Gillard government. I accused them of “dry butt fucking my generation into oblivion.” They stared at me in open-mouthed shock, so I added that that they should “go huff asbestos in a ditch.” It’s not the kind of thing a level-headed person whips out at a 6 PM dinner with freshly introduced adults.
Of course, the outburst didn’t give me any sense of relief. It turned into a looping internal monologue of personal recrimination and self-hatred. Every decision is retroactively punished.
It’s a mirage illness. You feel like someone without fingerprints. You have no identity. You move between things constantly, people and passions. Onlookers can be tricked into seeing you as boldly transformative. In reality, you are someone without a sense of self. Sometimes I feel like a snake shedding infinite skin.
BPD isn’t talked about, but it needs to be. The stigma around BPD is pernicious. People accusing sufferers of using it as a crutch or an excuse for erratic behavior are only pushing us deeper into the pit of isolation that worsens the symptoms and the pain. Conversation can dispel a lot of the hurt, and while we have Mental Health Week, we may as well take the opportunity to air it out and punch it in the sunlight.
Luckily, BPD is treatable with consistent therapy, self-awareness, and support. It doesn’t have to be a lifelong chum like depression or anxiety. The ghost can definitely be outed. But like all mental illness, to do that requires some love, from friends, strangers, and yourself.
The shit thing about BPD is that it makes love hard to come by
Letting the kids drink is a tough subject for parents: To give a tipple or not?
APA Survey Reveals 2016 Presidential Election Source of Significant Stress for More Than Half of AmericansAuthor: SupremePundit
Preview of data from upcoming Stress in America™ poll shows election is equally stressful for Republicans and Democrats.
“We’re seeing that it doesn’t matter whether you’re registered as a Democrat or Republican — U.S. adults say they are experiencing significant stress from the current election,” said Lynn Bufka, PhD, APA’s associate executive director for practice research and policy. Across party lines, those registered as Democrats (55 percent) and Republicans (59 percent) are statistically equally likely to say the election is a very or somewhat significant source of stress.
“Election stress becomes exacerbated by arguments, stories, images and video on social media that can heighten concern and frustration, particularly with thousands of comments that can range from factual to hostile or even inflammatory,” said Bufka.
In fact, the survey revealed that social media appears to affect Americans’ stress levels when it comes to the election and related topics. Nearly 4 in 10 adults (38 percent) say that political and cultural discussions on social media cause them stress. In addition, adults who use social media are more likely than adults who do not to say the election is a very or somewhat significant source of stress (54 percent vs. 45 percent, respectively).
While men and women are equally likely (51 percent vs. 52 percent, respectively) to say the 2016 U.S. presidential election is a very or somewhat significant source of stress, election stress differs among generations of Americans. Millennials and “matures” are the most likely to say the election is a very or somewhat significant source of stress (56 percent vs. 59 percent, respectively) — significantly more than Generation Xers (45 percent) but not boomers (50 percent).
A Houston OB-GYN’s Facebook post is going viral after she recounted the dismissive racism she encountered on a Delta flight, where a flight attendant refused to believe that she was a doctor and refused to let her aid a man who had become unresponsive.“I’m sure many of my fellow young, corporate America working women of color can all understand my frustration when I say I’m sick of being disrespected,” Tamika Cross said at the start of her post.Cross detailed that she was on Delta Flight DL945 returning to Houston when she noticed someone a few rows in front of her screaming for help. A woman’s husband had reportedly become unresponsive.A flight attendant called for help from a physician on board. When Cross raised a hand to offer assistance, the flight attendant reportedly said, according to Cross’ post, “[O]h no sweetie put ur hand down, we are looking for actual physicians or nurses or some type of medical personnel, we don’t have time to talk to you.”Cross tried to correct the condescending flight attendant but was continually cut off.When someone else then paged for any physician on board to “press your button,” Cross pressed her button, to which the same flight attendant reportedly responded, according to her Facebook post, “[O]h wow, you’re an actual physician?”When Cross confirmed that she was, in fact, qualified, she said that the flight attendant demanded to see her credentials, questioning her about what kind of doctor she was, where she worked and why she was in Detroit.“[I’m an] OBGYN, work in Houston, in Detroit for a wedding, but believe it or not they DO HAVE doctors in Detroit. Now excuse me so I can help the man in need,” Cross responded, according to her Facebook post.However, at that point a white man also came forward and said that he was a physician, too. The flight attendant turned back to Cross and reportedly said, “Thanks for your help but he can help us, and he has his credentials.”Cross said that the other doctor had not shown the attendant any credentials at all—he just “fit the ‘description of a doctor’”—but she chose to keep the peace and remain seated.But Cross’ problematic interaction with the flight attendant did not end there. According to Cross, the woman repeatedly came back to “ask for my input on what to do next about 10 mins later. I tell her we need vitals and blood sugar. She comes back to report to me a BP of 80/50 (super low, to my non medical peeps) and they can’t find a glucometer.”Although understandably irritated, Cross said she “continued to help despite the choice words I had saved up for her. The patient and his wife weren’t the problem, they needed help and we were mid flight.“[The flight attendant] came and apologized to me several times and offering me skymiles. I kindly refused. This is going higher than her. I don’t want skymiles in exchange for blatant discrimination. Whether this was race, age, gender discrimination, it’s not right. She will not get away with this….and I will still get my skymiles,” Cross added, concluding her post.Cross’ Facebook post has definitely struck a note with many: It’s been shared more than 20,000 times since Oct. 9 and carries more than 6,000 comments.“I can’t even begin to wrap my head around this. How does somebody reconcile putting a life at risk because of a little melanin and absence of a Y chromosome? I hope Delta takes this seriously. You’re too good a person for this flawed world,” one commenter wrote.“I am so sorry you experienced that! And I must say your patience is outstanding! Thank you for staying strong for that man and his family! Because I don’t think I could contain myself after she comes back to get your help! Your amazing,” another wrote.
People who take calcium supplements may be at increased risk for developing buildups of plaque in their arteries, which is a sign of heart disease, a new study found.However, people who consume a lot of calcium through the food they eat may actually be at a lower risk of heart disease, the study showed.The findings add to a growing body of evidence that some dietary supplements, such as calcium supplements, may have harmful effects.”When it comes to using vitamin and mineral supplements, particularly calcium supplements being taken for bone health, many Americans think that more is always better,” study co-author Dr. Erin Michos, associate director of preventive cardiology at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine in Baltimore, said in a statement. “But our study adds to the body of evidence that excess calcium in the form of supplements may harm the heart and vascular system.”In the study, the researchers analyzed information from more than 2,700 people ages 45 to 84, who answered questions about their calcium intake, from both their diets and supplements.More From LiveScience 7 foods you can overdose on 7 foods your heart will hate Top 10 amazing facts about your heart 9 good sources of disease-fighter vitamin DThe participants also underwent two CT scans, one at the beginning of the study and another 10 years later. The scans looked for plaques containing calcium in the arteries of the heart, which are the coronary arteries. The presence of such calcium-containing plaques means that a person is at increased risk of developing heart disease, or having a heart attack. At the start of the study, about 1,500 people did not have any calcium-containing plaques in their arteries.The researchers then divided people into five groups based on the individuals’ calcium intake from both their diets and supplements.The people with the highest intake of calcium (greater than 1,400 milligrams per day) were actually 27 percent less likely to develop calcium-containing plaques in their coronary arteries over the 10-year study, compared with the group with the lowest intake of calcium (less than 400 mg per day). Moreover, the people in the highest-intake group who achieved their high calcium intake without supplements were at an especially low risk of developing plaques, according to the study.In contrast, people who took calcium supplements were overall 22 percent more likely to develop calcium-containing plaques over the study period, compared with those people who didn’t use such supplements. Forty-six percent of people in the study used calcium supplements.It’s possible that large doses of calcium consumed in supplements may temporarily elevate calcium levels in the blood, which leads to calcifications in blood vessels, the researchers said.”There is clearly something different in how the body uses and responds to supplements versus intake through diet that makes it riskier,” said study co-author John Anderson, a professor emeritus of nutrition at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. “It could be from taking a large dose all at once that the body is unable to process.”The researchers noted that they found only an association and cannot prove that taking calcium supplements causes an increase in the risk of developing calcium-containing plaques and heart disease. In addition, the participants self-reported their calcium intake, and it’s possible they did not always remember their intake correctly, which could affect the results, the researchers said.Previous research supports the new study’s results, though. A 2012 study from Sweden found that consuming high amounts of calcium was linked with an increased risk of dying from any cause during the study period, including from heart disease.The researchers said their new results are “hypothesis generating” and should spur more research in this area.”Based on this evidence, we can tell our patients that there doesn’t seem to be any harm in eating a heart-healthy diet that includes calcium-rich foods, and it may even be beneficial for the heart,” Michos said. “But patients should really discuss any plan to take calcium supplements with their doctor to sort out a proper dosage or whether they even need” such supplements.The study was published Oct. 11 in the Journal of the American Heart Association.Original article on Live Science.
The digestive tract of the ‘future of food’ does not always run smooth… The startup behind drink-your-dinner powder Soylent has issued a product recall. Not..
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The universe seems a little less lonely today.
Astronomers from the University of Nottingham conducted a new survey of the universe’s galaxy population and concluded that previous estimates lowballed the census by a factor of about 20. Using data from Hubble and telescopes around the world, as well as a new mathematical model, they estimate that there are two trillion galaxies in the observable universe; previous estimates put the number of galaxies in the universe at around 100 billion.
Looking Through Time and Space
To understand how the researchers accomplished their task, we first need to understand what they mean by the “observable universe.” Because the speed of light is fixed, we can never get a true picture of what the universe looks like right now. As we look further and further away, we must necessarily look further back in time as well.
So, in discovering how many galaxies exist in the observable universe, the Nottingham researchers haven’t discovered how many galaxies exist right now, they’ve found out how many galaxies we would be able to see if our instruments were good enough. This may seem like a big caveat, but it’s the only way can observe the far-flung universe. Being able to look back in time has its advantages, however.
To reach their conclusion, the researchers looked at the rate of galaxy mergers throughout the universe. Most galaxies likely started small, and grew through a series of mergers with other galaxies as time went on. Because the researchers could see clusters further and further back in time as they looked deeper, they could compare the concentration of galaxies long ago to more recent times — relatively speaking.
They found that galaxies appear to clump together as time goes by, forming larger structures while also reducing the total number of galaxies present. By running this rate backward, and extrapolating beyond what we can currently see, the researchers concluded that around 90 percent of the galaxies out there are too faint and too far away to view with current telescopes. This is what allowed them to drastically increase our estimation of the number of observable galaxies.
The researchers released their paper Tuesday on the preprint server arXiv, it is set to be published in the Astrophysical Journal.
Why Can’t We See Them?
This new galaxy census gives us an answer to a decades-old question known as Olbers’ paradox. If there are so many stars and galaxies out there, why can’t we see them all? Given the nearly unimaginable number of stars and galaxies out there, the night sky should be awash in light.
The solution, say the researchers, lies in the huge distances that separate us from most galaxies. Because the universe is expanding, the light that reaches us is subject to a phenomenon called “redshift.” Similar to the Doppler effect that alters the pitch of a passing ambulance, as distant celestial objects move away from us, the wavelengths of light they emit appear to stretch out. Go far enough, and the light will redshift below the level discernible by the human eye, and eventually telescopes. In addition, galaxies and interstellar space between them is filled with tiny particles of dust that absorb and filter out light.
Some of this radiation shows up as background light, a faint diffuse glow of light that appears to have no source. The rest, however, disappears before it ever reaches us.
The James Webb Telescope, set to launch in 2018, may be able to pick out some of these elusive stars. Until then, we’ll just have to believe
What The Church Isn’t Telling You About Nibiru And The Anunnaki : In5D Esoteric, Metaphysical, and Spiritual DatabaseAuthor: SupremePundit
by Gregg Prescott, M.S. Editor, In5D.com Silently, the Vatican is releasing information about Nibiru entering our solar system and extraterrestrial neighbors who have already met with Vatican offic…
Pope Pius XII launched Servizio Informazioni del Vaticano(SIV), an agency at cross purposes with Majestic-12:
FOR HE WHO IS NOT AGAINST US IS FOR US
In Februari 1954 Pope Pius XII received Los Angelos Bishop James Francis McIntyre, who provided him with an extraordinary report. Two days before, at the request of President Dwight D. Eisenhower, the bishop had been part of a delegation witness to a clandestine U.S./extraterrestrial meeting at Edwards Air Force Base. This event was the meeting that occurred in California at Muroc Airfield (which later became Edwards Air Force Base) of an alien delegation with President Eisenhower, attended by Bishop McIntyre. The meeting was filmed by the U.S. military with 3 16mm cameras, placed at different points, loaded with color film and spring drive motors; that is because each camera operator had to change the film every 3 minutes and because in the presence of the aliens, electric motors did not work. In total they shot 20 minutes of film in 7 rolls, each of them 30 meters in length.
At the end of the meeting, each member of the Earth delegation swore never to reveal to anyone what he had seen and what he had heard about the aliens. It was impressed on Bishop McIntyre before reaching Rome, that his oath included the Holy Father. The bishop rejected this, and took his report to the Vatican.
After having spoken with Bishop McIntyre at length, Pope Pius XII meditated deeply on the possible implications of an exclusively American military relationship with the aliens. The Pope decided to launch a secret information department with a structure similar to the fascist military intelligence departments, codenamed SIV(=Servizio Informazioni del Vaticano) that would gather all possible information regarding the activities of the alien entity and information acquired by the Americans. It was very important to keep open channels of communication with President Eisenhower.
The SIV was basically constituted to acquire and to manage all secret information regarding alien matters, coordinating with intelligence organizations in other countries. The main goal of the newly formed department was to manage all aspects of the moral, philosophical and religious implications of continuing ET contact.
An Etherian/Nordic faction of ETs met with SIV and Pope Pius XII inside the Vatican Gardens:
Bishop McIntyre, members of SIV, and Pope Pius XII himself had contact with a faction of ETs, including Etherians (light-emitting and humanlike) and Nordics (humanlike aliens with Scandinavian looks). These extraterrestrials expressed an affinity with Christ and his message, and gave a warning regarding the U.S. involvement with the Greys. Meetings with the members of SIV happened many times in the United States and twice also inside the Vatican Gardens near the Pontifical Academy of Science, in the presence of Pope Pius XII. I find it hard to wrap my mind around this, but the (truly pious) Pius XII considered these aliens as a special kind of converts to the Christian faith.
Stunning as it seems, the Pope effectively had committed SIV (and by extension the Church) to a treaty with Etherians and Nordics, obviously at cross purposes to the American Majestic-12 who began an alliance with the Greys. (Etherians made a similar offer for cooperation to President Eisenhower, stipulating the U.S. get rid of nuclear arms first.) For many years the Church of Rome was to receive assistance in its missions, in particular by getting the ET’s views on social and political situations internationally.
This situation (the secret treaty) continued on throughout the Pontificate of Angelo Giussepe Roncalli (Pope Blessed John XXIII), who many times expressed to the leaders of SIV his fears regarding investing too much trust in these beings. That may be one of the main reasons for convening The Second Vatican Ecumenical Council: investigating the need to take a first concrete step toward the renewal of the Church, in view of the possibility of imminent contact.
Pope Blessed John XXIII came to believe it would be too disruptive to the believers to learn of close cooperation between the Vatican and alien visitors. He decided that direct contacts should end, separating the paths of Church and ETs. Before his death in 1963 from acute peritonitis he referred to them as benevolent beings, capable of Christian faith. His dying declaration, conceivably affirming his separate human interpretation of his faith was: “The open arms of Christ were the purpose of my pontificate. A humble and modest pontificate as you see, for which I assume all responsibility. I am satisfied in what I have done and how I have done it.”
In a secret manuscript from Pope Blessed John XXIII (Angelo Giussepe Roncalli) to his successor, which contained one special dossier about “Servizio Informazioni del Vaticano,” the Pope mentioned a passage from the Gospel of Mark that clearly explained the position of the Church regarding these benevolent beings coming from other worlds.
Dal Vangelo secondo Marco ( 9, 38 e seg)
In quel tempo, Giovanni rispose a Gesù dicendo: “Maestro, abbiamo visto uno che scacciava i démoni nel tuo nome e glielo abbiamo vietato, perché non era dei nostri”. Ma Gesù disse: “Non glielo proibite, perché non c’è nessuno che faccia un miracolo nel mio nome e subito dopo possa parlare male di me. Chi non è contro di noi è per noi. Chiunque vi darà da bere un bicchiere d’acqua nel mio nome perché siete di Cristo, vi dico in verità che non perderà la sua ricompensa”.
Translated to English it reads (From the Gospel of Mark 9: 38 ff.):
“At which time, John responded to Jesus saying: “Master, we saw a man who was casting out demons in your name and we forbad him because he was not one of us.”
But Jesus said: “Forbid him not, for there is no man who shall do a miracle in my name that can then lightly speak evil of me. For he who is not against us is for us. For whosoever shall give you a cup of water to drink in my name, because you belong to Christ, verily I say unto you, he shall not lose his reward.”
Another quote from this Pontiff (St. Peter’s Plaza April 5th 1961):
“Some voices previously were unknown. But this concerns voices, descending from the sky to the Earth, voices which possess and reflect the omnipotence of the Heavenly Father.”
The body of Pope Blessed John XXIII at St. Peter’s Basilica:
THE KERIGMA/SILOE PROGRAM
If SIV scientists are operating from the Alaska HAARP facility, the U.S. and the Vatican have joined forces:
During the meetings of Pope Pius XII with the ETs they informed him of the approach of a celestial body to the solar system in which resides an advanced, very warlike alien race. In 1990 the deep space probe named Siloe, part of a deep space exploration program called KERIGMA had taken photos of a huge planet with companion satellite getting closer to the Solar System. This information was received in Alaska during October 1995, and has been classified Above Top Secret or alternatively “Secretum Omega”, a Vatican designation.
The Siloe probe was put in orbit by a (speculatively) Mach 5, scram-jet driven, Aurora space plane (artist’s impression):
The Siloe probe was constructed in Area 51, has an electromagnetic impulse motor, and it was put in orbit by an Aurora type space plane. The probe did not have any calculations or pre-indications of the trajectory or the precise location of its distant target, because it was tasked to close with the huge approaching planet, while avoiding a collision and to return to our Solar System to a position close enough to transmit the data and images to the SIV radio telescope located in Alaska. The probe was launched as soon as the SIV telescope was operational and the probe was capable of transmitting images in 1995. A Vatican source’s description of the location of these SIV facilities furthermore seems to suggest they are part of HAARP in Alaska. Meaning that the Vatican and the U.S. have joined forces in tackling the alien problem.
Spaceprobe Siloe had taken photos of a huge planet with companion satellite, approaching our Solar System:
The Vatican, heartland of the Roman Church and SIV:
Never discourage anyone who continually makes progress, no matter how slow.
February 13, 2013
Shocking Alien Fears Force Pope From Office
By: Sorcha Faal, and as reported to her Western Subscribers
A stunning Ministry of Foreign Affairs (MFA) report prepared for President Putin, which is circulating in the Kremlin today, states that Pope Benedict XVI was forced to resign this past week over Catholic Church fears that this 85-year-old leader of over 1 billion Christians was “mentally and physically unprepared” to deal with the coming revelation about the truth of alien beings.
In our 22 January report, Russia Orders Obama: Tell World About Aliens, Or We Will, we detailed how the issue of extraterrestrial beings was brought to the forefront of the World Economic Forum (WEF) with the naming in their 2013 Executive Summary of the danger posed to our world over the discovery of alien life with their stating: “Proof of life elsewhere in the universe could have profound psychological implications for human belief systems.”
Also noted in our previous report were Prime Minister Medvedev’s 7 December 2012 off-air comments to reporters which were recorded and wherein he stated: “Along with the briefcase with nuclear codes, the president of the country is given a special ‘top secret’ folder. This folder in its entirety contains information about aliens who visited our planet… Along with this, you are given a report of the absolutely secret special service that exercises control over aliens on the territory of our country… More detailed information on this topic you can get from a well-known movie called Men In Black… I will not tell you how many of them are among us because it may cause panic.”
Spurring Pope Benedict XVI to become the first leader of the Catholic Church to resign in nearly 600 years, this MFA report says, was the appearance over Los Cristianos, Spain on 21 August 2011 of the long prophesized “bird of prey” interplanetary spacecraft, and which was followed nearly 3 weeks ago with a fleet of them appearing in the skies over Mexico City.
To fully understand the significance of these “bird of prey” UFO’s, this report continues, files relating to the 27 September 1989 Voronezh Incident must be studied in length, especially as it relates to the “messages” delivered to eyewitnesses from the “giants”.
In an 11 October 1989 New York Times article about the Voronezh Incident titled U.F.O. Landing Is Fact, Not Fantasy, the Russians Insist it says:
“It is not a joke, nor a hoax, nor a sign of mental instability, nor an attempt to drum up local tourism by drawing the curious, the Soviet press agency Tass insisted today in discussions of what it called an extraterrestrial visit to southern Russia.
Residents of the city of Voronezh insisted today that lanky, three-eyed extraterrestrial creatures had indeed landed in a local park and gone for a stroll and that a seemingly fantastic report about the event carried Monday by the official press agency Tass was absolutely true.
The three-eyed creature, about nine feet tall and fashionably dressed in silvery overalls and bronze boots and with a disk on its chest, disappeared, then landed and came out for a promenade with a companion and a robot.
Regarding these “messages” from the Voronezh “giants”, this MFA report says, was the warning to human beings that when these “bird of prey” UFO’s descend upon Earth the whole planet will be in peril.
The Voronezh “giants” further related, this report says, that the alien beings associated with these “bird of prey” UFO’s were the cause of the 14 April 1561 massive “sky battle” over Nuremberg, Germany which was depicted in a famous 16th century woodcut by Hans Glaser [photo 3rd left] and described by the residents as: “A very frightful spectacle.” “The sky appeared to fill with cylindrical objects from which red, black, orange and blue white disks and globes emerged. Crosses and tubes resembling cannon barrels also appeared whereupon the objects promptly began to fight one another.”
Important to note is that the Catholic Christian faith headed by Pope Benedict XVI, as well as nearly every other religion on Earth, all prophesize in their teachings a time when the “gods” will return to our planet and engage in a battle that could very well bring our entire planet to the brink of destruction.
Equally important to note about Pope Benedict XVI’s shock resignation is how it eerily compares with Saint Malachy, who as an Irish saint and Archbishop of Armagh, in the 12th Century, received a vision of 112 Popes later attributed to the apocalyptic list of Prophecy of the Popes. He was the first Irish saint to be canonized by Pope Clement III in 1199.
American authors Tom Horn and Cris Putnam in their 2012 book “Petrus Romanus: The Final Pope is Here” about Saint Malachy’s prophecies told interviewers last Spring that Pope Benedict XVI would resign by late 2012, or early 2013, and described the next Pope to follow as “Petrus Romanus,” or “Peter the Roman,” writing: “In the final persecution of the Holy Roman Church there will reign Peter the Roman, who will feed his flock among many tribulations; after which the seven-hilled city will be destroyed and the dreadful Judge will judge the people.”
Though the masses of people reading of the things this report contains will, undoubtedly, ridicule them, the same cannot be said of the elite moneyed classes who, even at this writing, are protecting themselves from “something” at such a fever-pitched pace it is destabilizing the entire global economy, and as exampled by the highly respected Zero Hedge news service in their article titled “What Do They Know That We Don’t?” and which, in part, says:
“Friday evening when no one was supposed to pay attention, Google announced that Executive Chairman Eric Schmidt would sell 3.2 million of his Google shares in 2013, 42% of the 7.6 million shares he owned at the end of last year—after having already sold 1.8 million shares in 2012. But why would he sell 5 million shares, about 53% of his holdings, with Google stock trading near its all-time high?
“Part of his long-term strategy for individual asset diversification and liquidity,” Google mollified us, according to the Wall Street Journal. Soothing words. Nothing but “a routine diversification of assets.”
Routine? He didn’t sell any in 2008 as the market was crashing. He didn’t sell at the bottom in early 2009. And he didn’t sell during the rest of 2009 as Google shares were soaring, nor in 2010, as they continued to soar. In 2011, he eased out of about 300,000 shares, a mere rounding error in his holdings. But in 2012, he opened the valves, and in 2013, he’d open the floodgates. So it’s not “routine.”
Mr. Schmidt isn’t alone. Corporate insiders were “aggressively selling their shares,” reported Mark Hulbert. And they were doing so “at an alarming pace.” The buy sell-to-buy ratio had risen to 9.2-to-1; insiders had sold over 9 times as many shares as they’d bought. They’d been aggressive sellers for weeks.
Instantly, soothing voices were heard: “don’t be alarmed,” they said. But Mr. Schmidt and his colleagues at the top of corporate America, multi-billionaires many of them, are immensely well connected, not only to each other but also to the Fed, whose twelve regional Federal Reserve Banks they own and control.”
To why Google Chairman Schmidt did not attend this years World Economic Forum, where the danger of aliens was being discussed, opting instead for a visit to North Korea (who announced yesterday that they had exploded another nuclear weapon) and when coupled with the information contained in this MFA report, is far from being “soothing”, and is, instead, something well all should be very alarmed about as the end is much nearer than the beginning as those with “eyes to see” and “ears to hear” already know.
February 13, 2012 © EU and US all rights reserved. Permission to use this report in its entirety is granted under the condition it is linked back to its original source at WhatDoesItMean.Com. Freebase content licensed under CC-BY and GFDL.
[Ed. Note: Western governments and their intelligence services actively campaign against the information found in these reports so as not to alarm their citizens about the many catastrophic Earth changes and events to come, a stance that the Sisters of Sorcha Faal strongly disagrees with in believing that it is every human beings right to know the truth. Due to our missions conflicts with that of those governments, the responses of their ‘agents’ against us has been a longstanding misinformation/misdirection campaign designed to discredit and which is addressed in the report “Who Is Sorcha Faal?”.]
Pope Francis To Announce Church Preparing For Alien Contact This Week (their-we are already here billions of years – CNN iReportAuthor: SupremePundit
According to Daniel Sheehan, the Catholic Church is now actively preparing for the discovery of Alien contact with highly a advanced alien species. Speaking at contact in the desert, he told of a what will be a historic papal encyclical decree calling for nothing less than the disassembly of the power structures that are destroying our civilisation and preventing us from joining an enlightened galactic community.Pope Francis previously caused quite a stir last year when he announced that he would baptise Aliens, quite a statement and a timely one at that given the fact the Vatican owns the biggest telescope on the planet.Former Minsitry Of Defence Nick Pope Told Neon Nettle: “It’s no secret that the Catholic Church has been repositioning themselves on this issue over the past few years. Do they know something? I doubt it. I think they’re just trying to ensure that if the scientific community announces the discovery of extraterrestrial life, the church is prepared.”Sheehan’s talk began with a summary of his previous work as an advocate for alien disclosure which, he says, also included classified sections from Project Bluebook (a study into UFO’s by the American airforce). He went on to say that his access to Bluebook gave him exposure to photographic evidence of crashes UFO’s that had Alien symbols on them.daniel p sheehan a harvard college trained american government foreign policy scholar talks about alien disclosure through the vatican © pressDaniel P. Sheehan, a Harvard College trained American Government & Foreign Policy Scholar talks about alien disclosure through the vaticanhttp://www.neonnettle.com/news/1447-pope-francis-to-announce-church-prep…
The Pope Is To Declare “The Aliens Are Coming” (Apparently)The Pope Is To Declare “The Aliens Are Coming”(Apparently) It has been said many times before that the Vatican is preparing to declare to the world that they are going to start preparing for Alien contact….And the evidence is building up to this being a very true story!Pope Francis appears ‘welcoming’ to Aliens.Pope Francis appears ‘welcoming’ to Aliens. There is a rumour going round at the moment that the Vatican/Pope is about to announce to the world that they are preparing for Alien contact, but how true this is, is a completely different question!?The Catholic church has been pondering over whether there indeed is a far more technologically and intellectually advanced sentient species elsewhere in the galaxy?! Pope Francis believes apparently believes so and according to rumour he will not only announce his intentions to prepare the human race for ET contact, BUT he will (according to many rumours) denounce the international corporate capitalist system, that is currently contaminating the planet with toxic consciousness and greed and making us all slaves to the dollar!One of the many images from the past which shows the connection between religion and AliensOne of the many images from the past which shows the connection between religion and Aliens The Vatican’s Astronomer More evidence building up towards the Vatican’s acceptance of aliens was when the president of the Vatican Observatory Foundation confirmed that it is only a matter of time before alien life forms are discovered, which will pave the way to questions about God’s relationship to intelligent beings outside our planet.aJesuit Brother Guy Consolmagno speculated that the general public will not be too surprised when life on other planets is eventually discovered, and will react in much the same way it did when news broke in the ’90s that there are other planets orbiting far off stars.Consolmagno, who is a leading planetary scientist who has studied meteorites and asteroids as an astronomer with the Vatican Observatory since 1993, told Catholic News Service that discovery of alien life will not prove or disprove the existence of God, but will pave the way to questions on salvation and how it relates to intelligent species.Consolmagno also argued that there is no conflict between science and religion, and that both fields can complement each other….something which goes against many extreme religious folks views!The Vaticans Astronomer believes religion and Aliens can work together!The Vaticans Astronomer believes religion and Aliens can work together! “Eventually you learn that the kinds of questions you ask as a scientist and the kinds of answers you get as a scientist are only the kinds of questions that lead to more questions. They’re all very contingent. Now I understand how this works, but that opens up a new mystery that I hadn’t seen before and now I can explore that mystery,” Consolmagno said. “The bigger questions, the religious questions, they’re handled by science. The religious questions give you the framework that gives you the motivation to ask the science questions, gives you the confidence the science is going to work and explains to you why I get this excitement at holding a rock from outer space.”Back in May, Roman Catholic Church leader Pope Francis mentioned alien life forms in one of his sermons, and suggested that even Martian’s, should they visit Earth, would be welcomed to be baptized. “If, for example, tomorrow an expedition of Martian’s came, and some of them came to us, here … Martians, right? Green, with that long nose and big ears, just like children paint them. … And one says, ‘But I want to be baptized!’ What would happen?” Francis asked.According to constitutional and public interest lawyer and educator Daniel Sheehan, the Catholic Church is actively preparing for the discovery of and contact with a highly advanced sentient alien species. He spoke today at Contact in the Desert 2015, a landmark UFO conference in Joshua Tree in Southern California, where he described what will be a historic papal encyclical decree calling for nothing less than the disassembly of the power structures that are destroying our civilization and preventing us from joining an enlightened galactic partnership.Sheehan’s speech started with a summary of his work as a people’s advocate for alien disclosure that has included access to classified sections from Project Bluebook, which supposedly contains photographic evidence of a downed craft with alien symbols.Sheehan went on to describe how Pope Francis wants to avoid the kind of chaos that engulfed the Catholic Church during the time of Galileo when it was revealed Earth is not the centre of the Universe. For the next major shift in human consciousness, he wants to position the Catholic Church and the Jesuit Order to integrate the reality of alien existence as well as the evolution of a 6th faculty of human consciousness.T
Vatican officials affirm the existence of UFOs and calls the aliens brothers, interviews with Msgr. Corrado Balducci and Fr. Gabriel Funes, News reveal secret talks with the UN on aliens and UFOS and agreement of possibility of the existence of extraterrestial life
Vatican Approves UFOs
Source: Vatican Approves UFOs
1. Your partner shows up unannounced
Showing up at work unexpectedly is one of the signs your partner doesn’t respect you Surprising you with flowers on a random Wednesday is a welcome treat; showing up unannounced when you’re clearly busy or have a lot going on is not. If you find your partner repeatedly popping up at inopportune times, at inconvenient places, there’s a problem. As mentioned in The Frisky, if he or she shows up at your work, class, or home unannounced and uninvited, causing a scene, they don’t respect you.
2. Your partner uses gaslighting techniques
If you often find your partner using sneaky techniques to keep you in check, he or she doesn’t respect you. According to Your Tango,
“Gaslighting is a phrase assigned to an emotional abuse technique that has one partner convincing the other that reality is an illusion.
If your partner is denying they said and did things or blaming you for saying and doing things you didn’t, it’s abusive.” Have you ever known a person who, no matter how at fault they may be, somehow seems to vaguely skate over the issue, turning around on you? Dealing with a person like this is infuriating. If this is your partner’s norm, it’s likely it will never change.
3. Your partner treats sex as a transaction
A partner should never use sex as a tool Anytime a person expects sex in exchange for something, the most basic form of respect is tossed out the window. Sex should never be used as a method of coercion or a form of payment. It’s your body, and it certainly doesn’t belong to anyone else, no matter how committed two partners may be. If your partner does the chores, is it your job to owe them a sexual favor? No. Sadly, though, not everyone takes the same stance on the issue. Case in point — this article from The Stir that calls out Pat Robertson, host of a call-in show, who has claimed that wives should thank their husbands with sex each time they do chores around the house. No, just no.
4. Your partner isn’t proud of you
As you’ve strived for your parents’ approval throughout your life, seeking those heavily-weighted words of acceptance, you want the same from your partner. To hear “I’m proud of you,” from someone you respect is a big deal, and it’s important that both partners take pride in the relationship. When your partner is proud of you, and proud to be with you, Bustle says, there’s a mutual respect for one another. Could you imagine being in a relationship in which your significant other doesn’t really think you’ve worked hard for your career? Without a partner who’s genuinely proud of you, your accomplishments, and your overall contributions to your relationship, they clearly don’t realize or value your worth, and you shouldn’t stand for that. Ever.
5. Your partner refuses to compromise or negotiate
It is only natural the person closest to you will get under your skin, and part of a relationship is being able to discuss life’s major challenges as a team. But when one person in a relationship isn’t willing to act as a team, there’s bound to be long-term issues. A big part of respecting someone is being able to reach a compromise in which both parties are satisfied with the outcome. The Centers for Family Change says, “Respect is established when you consistently: consider and value the feelings and opinions of your partner; talk to and treat your partner in ways that you would want to be treated; and compromise and negotiate with your partner.” If you and your partner aren’t doing this, you’re not getting the respect you deserve.
“Remember, our nonviolent ETI from the contiguous universe are helping us bring zero point energy to Earth,” Podesta was told. “They will not tolerate any forms of military violence on Earth or in space.” The reference to ETI – extraterrestrial intelligence – set off alarm bells. So did mention of zero point energy, which its fans claim could be harnessed as an inexhaustible power supply.
WikiLeaks’ purloined emails cover a wide range of issues that were handled by Hillary Clinton’s campaign chairman, John Podesta, in them are clear references to issues that have to do with E.T., alien energy sources and Apollo 14 astronaut Edgar Mitchell’s efforts to educate the public (DISCLOSURE) about Aliens from outer space before he died.
While GOP presidential candidate Donald Trump focused his fire on what the WikiLeaks file had to say about Clinton’s Wall Street speeches as a way to distract the public from the larger issue, UFO fans dwelled on what Mitchell was telling Podesta as he made the transition from the Obama White House to the Clinton campaign in 2015.
In an email from January of that year, Mitchell asked for an urgent meeting with Podesta about “(DISCLOSURE) and zero point energy,” and promised that a colleague named Terri Mansfield would “bring us up to date on the Vatican’s awareness of ETI.”
Mitchell sent another plea via email that August.
“Remember, our nonviolent ETI from the contiguous universe are helping us bring zero point energy to Earth,” Podesta was told. “They will not tolerate any forms of military violence on Earth or in space.”
The reference to ETI – extraterrestrial intelligence – set off alarm bells. So did mention of zero point energy, which its fans claim could be harnessed as an inexhaustible power supply.
“Hillary Clinton Leaked E-Mails Reveal Shocking Discussions on SPACE WARS, UFOs and ETs,” one of the more breathless (and search-optimized) headlines read.
But in fact, Mitchell never met with Clinton – or with Podesta, for that matter. “The meeting with Podesta, sadly, never took place,” Carol Rosin, one of Mitchell’s longtime collaborators, told GeekWire today in an email.
Rosin and Mansfield confirmed that Mitchell was indeed the author of the two emails, even though they went out via Mansfield’s email address, firstname.lastname@example.org. They said they worked with an aide to Podesta in hopes of arranging a meeting with him to discuss a treaty to ban weapons in outer space.
Rosin noted that Mitchell and Podesta shared an interest in extraterrestrial (DISCLOSURE).
“As you know, Dr. Mitchell was courageously educating people about the fact that ‘we are not alone,’ that there is no evidence of there being any hostile ETs here or coming to control, intervene or harm us, that we can have zero point energy, that there are no weapons based in space and that this is the unique time in history when our leaders can sign and ratify the ‘Treaty on the Prevention of the Placement of Weapons in Outer Space’ that has been introduced by the leaders of Russia and China,” Rosin said.
So, what about Podesta? When he left the White House in February 2015, he said in a tweet that his biggest regret of the previous year was “once again not securing the disclosure of the UFO files.”
“I’ve talked to Hillary about that,” Podesta told KLAS-TV this March during a campaign stop in Las Vegas. “There are still classified files that could be declassified.”
Podesta hasn’t discussed what might be in those files, but Clinton has vowed to “get to the bottom” of any mystery that still surrounds the UFO phenomenon.
Two other emails in WikiLeaks’ Podesta file were sent by Tom DeLonge, a veteran of the rock band Blink-182. Those emails refer to a UFO-related documentary project – perhaps the “Sekret Machines” multimedia project that DeLonge kicked off this year.
In an email from last October, DeLonge told Podesta that he’s “the one who interviewed you for that special documentary,” relating to “our sensitive topic.” In the other email, sent this January, DeLonge referred to Air Force Maj. Gen. William McCasland in connection with the 1947 Roswell UFO incident.
Roswell was of interest to Mitchell as well. When I interviewed him in 2014, he acknowledged that he relied on the claims that others have made about Roswell and other UFO sightings. That secondhand perspective also probably applies to Mitchell’s reference to the Vatican connection.
Even if Clinton (or Trump) comes across new revelations, it’ll be too late for Mitchell. He passed away this February at the age of 85. Nevertheless, there may yet be more to come from the late moonwalker. “The book Edgar and I wrote decades ago will soon be published,” Rosin said in her email.
Remember when they come:
More from GeekWire:
- Apollo 14 moonwalker (and UFO seeker) Edgar Mitchell dies at the age of 85
- If elected, Hillary Clinton vows to ‘get to the bottom’ of the UFO mystery
- Apollo 10’s moon music mystery revisited
Are all brides in China whores by prudish American standards? This typical Chinese bride lets guests pull down dress and grope her breasts to raise money for honeymoonAuthor: SupremePundit
Bride lets guests pull down dress and grope her breasts to raise money for honeymoonThe woman is seen accepting cash from men and women as they pose for a picture while touching her et daily updates directly to your inboxA queue of people lines up to grope a bride’s breasts…so that she can afford a honeymoon.
This bizarre clip, which was filmed in China , shows men and women paying to touch the bride, apparently so that she and her new husband can pay for their post-wedding trip.The woman and those groping her appear to pose for pictures as she takes the money and pushes their hands to her chest.Meanwhile, the wedding party continues around them.Bride allows wedding guests to grope her breasts in exchange for honeymoon funds(Photo: YouTube)The first in line in the clip is a woman who spends some time posing for a photo with the bride, who is still wearing her wedding outfit.Her dress is pulled down to expose her breasts, which are then manhandled for cash.Read More Bride left screaming as groom nearly dies at wedding when prank goes horribly wrongNext in line is a man who gets even closer when the bride pulls his head down to her chest.Bride allows wedding guests to grope her breasts in exchange for honeymoon funds(Photo: YouTube)Finally, another man takes his turn while the bride blows a kiss to the camera.The strange custom is said to take place at weddings in China and other parts of Asia.Also common at Chinese weddings is tradition of “nao dongfang”, which sees both bride and groom subjected to pranks throughout their wedding reception.
A ‘sixth sense’ which goes beyond the basic five senses of taste, smell, touch, sight and hearing, has apparently been discovered in America
A ‘sixth sense’ really does exist, scientists claim – but it’s got nothing to do with being able to see dead people.
Researchers in America say they have discovered the ‘intuition’ gene , which goes beyond the basic five senses of taste, smell, touch, sight and hearing.
This apparent sixth sense affects ‘proprioception’ or body awareness.
The discovery was made with the help of two young patients with a rare genetic neurological disorder who have a mutation in the ‘Piezo2’ gene affecting their body awareness.
When blindfolded, the pair were completely unable to walk without falling.
They also couldn’t track the position of their arms and legs as researchers gently moved them – something most people can do without looking.
While they were insensitive to certain kinds of touch, the pair – aged nine and 19 – could still feel pain, itch, temperature and gentle brushing.
Neurologist Dr Carsten Bonnemann, of the National Institutes of Health in Maryland, US, said: “Our study highlights the critical importance of Piezo2 and the senses it controls in our daily lives.
“The results establish Piezo2 is a touch and proprioception gene in humans.
“Understanding its role in these senses may provide clues to a variety of neurological disorders.”
The two unrelated patients both have difficulties walking, possessing hip, finger and foot deformities and abnormally curved spines diagnosed as progressive scoliosis.
Dr Bonnemann discovered the patients have mutations in Piezo2 which seem to block the normal production or activity of proteins in cells generating electrical nerve signals.
Co-author Dr Alexander Chesler said: “As someone who studies Piezo2 in mice working with these patients was humbling.
“Our results suggest they are touch-blind. The patient’s version of Piezo2 may not work so their neurons cannot detect touch or limb movements.”
The researchers found blindfolding made it harder for them to reliably reach for an object in front of their faces than it was for unaffected volunteers.
The patients were also less sensitive to certain forms of touch.
They could not feel vibrations from a buzzing tuning fork as well as the control subjects could.
But the patients’ nervous systems appeared to be developing normally. They were able to feel pain, itch and temperature normally.
The nerves in their limbs conducted electricity rapidly and their brains and cognitive abilities were similar to healthy controls of their age.
Dr Bonnemann said: “What’s remarkable about these patients is how much their nervous systems compensate for their lack of touch and body awareness.”
The study was published in the New England Journal of Medicine .
The heart can only take so much — and a new study suggests that the combination of strenuous exercise and high emotions may be too much for it to bear.In the study, working out while angry or emotionally upset was linked to a more than threefold greater risk of having a heart attack within the hour.The researchers also looked at exercise and emotional stress individually, to see if each factor, on its own, would affect the risk of heart attack. They found that each of these factors more than doubled a person’s risk of having a heart attack within the hour, according to the study, published today (Oct. 10) in the journal Circulation. [Beyond Vegetables and Exercise: 5 Ways to Be Heart Healthy]
Solar Physicists finally get the message: Landscheidt was right after all Posted: June 14, 2011 by tallbloke in Astrophysics, climate, Solar physics, solar system dynamics After years of pooh poohing Theodor Landscheidt’s methods, work and predictions, mainstream solar physics has made an announcement of the strong possibility of a protracted solar minimum with consequences for Earth’s climate. At a workshop in New Mexico today, the AAS brought the work of Livingstone and Penn into the spotlight and
Carl Smith in 2007 using JPL data and his own programming skills plotted the Angular Momentum of the Sun. This graph I believe is the Rosetta stone of solar science.
Carl’s original graph did not have the green arrows, but instead he displayed red arrows when the curve reached zero. (both Carl & Landscheidt concentrated on the negative angular momentum as the graph goes through zero). Link to Carl’s original article HERE.. The solar disturbances occurring at the green arrows is a new discovery quite different to the Landscheidt theory. Carbon 14 graph from Wiki showing correlation with Carl’s graph. Green squares corresponding with the green arrows.Carl’s Graph was produced in 2007. Around 12 months later I stumbled on his graph while doing some ENSO research and noticed the “camel shaped humps” at the green arrows (green arrows added later), this is the point of divergence and the beginning of my research.The humps or disturbance to the normal pattern also looked to line up very accurately with prior slowdowns of the Sun for the last 400 years. I later discovered this to be true for the last 6000 years. By studying the shape of the hump and measuring the Saturn angle we can now also quantify the severity of the solar downturn which lines up with the 11000 yr 14C (solar proxy) records in timing and strength, I call these humps the AMP event which stands for Angular Momentum Perturbation. Further research established another correlation, I checked the planetary position at the point of disturbance and noticed a recurring pattern. Every time there is a disturbance on Carl’s graph we have the same planetary position. This position is Neptune, Uranus and Jupiter together with Saturn opposing, this only happens on a cycle around 172 years average, which now laid the foundation for solar modulation planning. In addition it also became obvious that Angular Momentum (AM) was responsible for the strength of the solar cycle, the AM curve very closely matches the sunspot curve which now allows us easily to predict modulation strength for the next 200 years and more. The AM graphs serve as a marker and AM is not a driver in itself, the background forces are gravity, rotation, torque and velocity. There is one fact that cannot be argued against, the position of the planets as just described radically changes the path of the Sun around the Solar System Barycenter (SSB), this also coincides with all solar slowdowns. Only this planetary position can cause this radical path change.The oncoming Grand Minimum will prove Carl’s graph is the key to solar activity, which will radically change the solar scientific arena. It will take time for Angular Momentum Theory (AMT) to take hold, but the house of cards of the last 50 years of solar science will eventually crumble, showing us all how little we really know.Below is a new version of Carl’s graph that uses different data that slightly enhances the AMP events at the green arrows. Click on the image for a full size view.Be sure to visit our sister site that has more new research in the Planetary Realm along with a full archive of Dr. Landscheidt’s & Carl Smith’s work http://landscheidt.wordpress.com/Dont forget to vote on “who’s name should be on the next grand minimum” in the poll link at the top.___________________________________________________________________________________________________Addition Keystone graphs produced after paper publication:solar powerwave3 prongs grand minima 18 comments
Bullshit about U.S. forest fires now blamed on humans changing the climate! It’s Jupiter you fools…..Author: SupremePundit
Human-made climate change is, by its nature, difficult for the average person to witness since it is a fabricated lie by the ultra rich as a method to tax and corral the unwashed masses.
Even if you lived for a century, you may not physically notice two extra degrees of warmth or have the capacity to monitor sea-level rise as it creeps, inch by inch, up a beach. An individual person certainly will not measure the pull of Jupiter on the sun causing the cycles we call solar cycles.
But… fucking morons aside… that can not figure out cause and effect without the boob tube telling them what is the cause and what is the effect…..
The climate modelers at the University of Idaho and Columbia University’s Lamont–Doherty Earth Observatory (LDEO). The researchers found – human-made — anthropogenic — climate change doubled the expansion of forest fires in the western United States over the last 36 years. The hardest-hit locations include places in the Pacific Northwest, such as the Cascade Mountains in eastern Oregon and eastern Washington, and the northern Rocky Mountain territories that cross Idaho, Montana and Wyoming.
It appears that findings like this help attract funding for folks that want to stay in universities instead of venturing out into the world and producing something of value in a competitive environment. Or is it just me….
No, No there are those with a different view. Just look up Landsheidt cycles and really spend some time with what the chart below is telling you. It is telling you we may now be able to predict the future.
Let insiders easily cash in stock options, as Enron did, and you risk seeing executives abandon a failing company. Encourage contractors to sacrifice quality to cut costs and you might cause problems like those that led the U.S. Justice Department to phase out privately run prisons.
How Can We Defy Aging?Many anti-aging studies are being conducted nowadays with the hope of discovering new methods of finding out which substances can halt the progress of aging in the body. Recently one study has shown that a vitamin, nicotinamide riboside, can stop the aging process in body organs.Nicotinamide riboside is a substance that has the potential of rejuvenating stem cells, permitting higher regeneration processes in aged mice.Nicotinamide riboside (NR) is pretty robust. It has already been proven in several experiences to be effective in boosting metabolism. And now, researchers at EPFL’s Laboratory of Integrated Physiology (LISP has reported about the positive effects of this vitamin on stem cells such as restoration.This vitamin has recently been studied in mice. As mice age, the regenerative ability of organs such as the liver and kidneys and some muscle groups diminishes. Their capability to repair cells following damage can also be affected. This results in some of the problems which are typical of getting older.Nicotinamide and AgingThe researchers wanted to appreciate how regeneration deteriorated with age. To do so, they determined the molecular chain that regulates how mitochondria, known as the “powerhouse” of the cell, can perform and how they are altered by age. The function that mitochondria play in metabolism has already been amply established, however, according to the researchers they were able to show for the first time that their ability to function properly was important for stem cells”.Under average conditions, these stem cells reacting to indicators sent by the body regenerate damaged organs by producing new distinctive cells. The lead author added, “We demonstrated that fatigue in stem cells was one of the main causes of poor regeneration or even degeneration in certain tissues or organs”.Because of this, the researchers desired to “revitalize” stem cells in the muscle tissues of aged mice. And so they did by means of concentrating on the molecules that support the mitochondria to function adequately. According to them, they “gave nicotinamide riboside to 2-year-old mice, which is an advanced age for them. This substance, which is close to vitamin B3, is a precursor of NAD+, a molecule that plays a key role in mitochondrial activity. And our results are extremely promising: muscular regeneration is much better in mice that received NR, and they lived longer than the mice that didn’t get it”.Other previous studies have showed a comparable effect on stem cells of the brain and epidermis. According to the lead author, “This work could have very important implications in the field of regenerative medicine. We are not talking about introducing foreign substances into the body but rather restoring the body’s ability to repair itself with a product that can be taken with food.”Up to now, no negative results have been found using NR, even at excessive doses. However caution should be observed because it seems to boost the functioning of all cells, which would comprise the abnormal ones. More studies are required.
Elysium isn’t the only pterostilbene vendor. In fact, ChromaDex also offers pterostilbene for supplements separately from Niagen. How excited should we be about all this? If I were a middle-aged mouse, I’d be ready to spend some of the nickels and dimes I’d dragged off the sidewalk to try NR supplements. Even before Sinclair’s paper, researchers had shown in 2012 that when given doses of NR, mice on high-fat diets gained 60 percent less weight than they did on the same diets without NR. Further, none of
Much of the book is devoted to explaining why we can’t turn to the experts for guidance, or at least, why we should expect no more from them than from parents or grandparents. As one of the world’s leading developmental psychologists, Gopnik is in a position to state, with authority, that no one knows what’s best when it comes to raising kids. That goes for co-sleeping as well as for screen time and making your kids do homework or take music lessons. Not that there aren’t good reasons for you to choose one course of action for your child, in the context of your situation. But science isn’t going to validate your decision for you.
The other clowns in the news need to both defeated by a libertarian when even the church is publishing that they both suck!
Catholics who can’t in good conscience vote for either major presidential candidate are well within their rights to pick a third option, says Bishop James Conley of Lincoln, Nebraska.
Felon gangbanger out of prison on attempted murder charges shoots police officers yet headline points out body armor and magazines instead of the real problem of paramilitary gangs from Mexico being allowed to operate at will!Author: SupremePundit
Two officers were killed and a third was injured responding to a reported disturbance at a residence in Palm Springs a city in the desert in California.
Police said Felix fired through a closed door without provocation as Palm Springs officers attempted to resolve a domestic disturbance call Saturday.
Two officers — one a new mother, the other close to retirement — were killed. A third officer was injured but expected to recover.
Felix is eligible for the death penalty, and prosecutors will make a decision in the next few weeks, District Attorney Mike Hestrin said at a news conference Sunday.
“I will tell you that I consider a brutal murder of a police officer to be a very heinous crime,” Hestrin said. “So I’ll leave it at that.”
Twelve hours after the shooting, Felix surrendered to a SWAT team from the Riverside County Sheriff’s Department.
The suspect reportedly had told his father moments before the shooting that he wanted to kill police officers.
Authorities said Sunday they would not address any of Felix’s criminal history and confirmed only a few details of the shooting, citing an active investigation.
Felix was wearing “soft, concealable body armor” and had several high-capacity gun magazines when he was captured early Sunday morning, Chief Deputy Ray Wood said at the press conference. He was not armed with a weapon when he was taken into custody, Wood said.
Wood said sheriff’s deputies “used a number of tools at our disposal” to try to draw Felix out during the standoff, including searching the house with a remote-controlled robot and then deploying tear gas.
“We attempted for several hours. There were many, many attempts to establish communication with him,” Wood said. “There was no mistaking that we were present.”
The officers killed were Lesley Zerebny, 27, and Jose Gilbert “Gil” Vega, 63.
Zerebny had recently returned from maternity leave and was the mother of a 4-month-old. She was married to a Riverside County sheriff’s deputy. A SWAT team from her husband’s department participated in efforts to capture the suspect and ultimately did so after an exchange of gunfire early Sunday morning, according to a statement from the sheriff’s department.
Vega, a 35-year veteran, was scheduled to retire in December. He had chosen to work overtime Saturday.
They were the first Palm Springs police officers to die in the line of duty since 1962, according to the Palm Springs Desert News.
“Today Palm Springs lost two brave officers,” Reyes said. “They go out every day with their boots on the ground. They gave their all for you.
” . . . I am awake in a nightmare right now. … If ever there was a time to pray for the Palm Springs police department, it is now.”
The third officer who was injured was expected to be released from the hospital Sunday, police said.
Reyes choked back tears throughout a a news conference Saturday as he recounted the domestic disturbance call his officers had tried to resolve.
The officers were called to the home just after an occupant had rushed across the street in a panic, telling a neighbor that his son had a gun and wanted to shoot police. “He came over and asked for help,” neighbor Frances Serrano told reporters.
“He said: ‘Help. I need help. My son is in the house and he’s crazy. He has a gun. He’s ready to shoot all the police.’”
The man walked back to his house and shortly afterward, Serrano said, she heard repeated gunshots “starting with a loud, I mean really loud, bang.”
As officers were attempting to talk to the man behind the door, he “threatened to shoot the officers” through it, Reyes said. Then the man opened fire, gunning down the officers.
Dozens of officers from surrounding jurisdictions responded to an emergency call about 10 minutes after the first one, surrounding the house and sealing off a four-block perimeter, uncertain as to the whereabouts of the shooter and warning residents to stay inside.
“There were police everywhere,” Serrano told reporters. “I looked out the window and saw police with rifles.”
Juan Graciano, 67, who lives a block away, told the Los Angeles Times he saw police attempting to revive Zerebny. “I saw a woman officer who had been laid down in the trunk of a police cruiser. I watched as they picked her up and laid her down on the street and began administering CPR.”
Another neighbor told reporters of hearing more rounds of gunfire that continued for up to 20 minutes. “We stayed indoors,” Georgie Eden told the Times. “It was kind of, pretty scary.”
The Palm Springs Desert Sun described the suspect as a “known gang member,” who spent four years in prison for a 2009 attempted murder plot. He was also arrested in 2013, the paper said, after fighting with police at the same home where Saturday’s shooting took place.
Authorities on Sunday did not address the suspect’s criminal history or detail the type of weapon or weapons used.
“At this point of time it is very premature for us to be talking about the all the details of the investigation,” said Wood said. “Right now it is still way early. We are still in the front end of the investigation.”
The Riverside County Sheriff’s Department is investigating the shooting.
The Palm Springs incident also comes on the heels of other high-profile police officer deaths. Last week, a Los Angeles County Sheriff’s sergeant was shot and killed while responding to a burglary call in Lancaster, Calif. In July, five police officers in Dallas were killed and seven others were wounded by a lone gunman.
According to the National Law Enforcement Officers Memorial Fund, 67 law enforcement officers have died in the line of duty this year as of July 20, an increase over the 62 officers killed in the same period last year. The nonprofit group’s mid-year report noted a troubling increase in some of those deaths occurring in “ambush” attacks.
This post has been updated.
Methionine- Restricted Diet… Who needs it?By Brenda Davis | Articles, Diet and Disease, General Nutrition | 27 November 2015image_print Methionine is an essential amino acid — one of the building blocks of protein that cannot be produced by the human body so must come from our food. It is one of two sulfur-containing amino acids (the other is cysteine). Methionine is an intermediary in the synthesis of cysteine, carnitine, taurine, and other compounds. It protects liver cells, and helps to prevent lipid peroxidation, and possibly atherosclerosis and elevated cholesterol. Although methionine is essential to human life, some people benefit by limiting, but not eliminating methionine in their diets. For such individuals a methionine-restricted diet may be advised. Should I be on a methionine-restricted diet?Some individuals need to restrict methionine due to inherited disorders that affect methionine metabolism. There is growing interest in methionine restricted diets for those who are unaffected by these genetic metabolic disorders. Evidence suggests that such diets could enhance longevity and help to prevent or treat certain chronic health conditions. The most common indications for a methionine-restricted diet are: i) MTHFR variants. MTHFR gene mutations can lead to elevated homocysteine. Methionine restriction is commonly recommended to help reduce homocysteine accumulation. ii) Cancer. While human studies are sparse, there is some evidence that cancer cells grow less robustly, and sometimes undergo apoptosis (cell death) when deprived of methionine. iii) Depression. High methionine intakes can elevate homocysteine levels and risk of depression. iv) Lifespan extension. Low methionine diets increase metabolic flexibility and overall insulin sensitivity and improve lipid metabolism while decreasing systemic inflammation. v) Insulin resistance. Methionine restriction has been shown to reduce adiposity and improve insulin sensitivity. vi) Homocystinuria. This inherited disorder of metabolism often requires a low methionine diet. If methionine-restriction may help kill cancer cells and increase longevity, shouldn’t everyone be on a methionine-restricted diet?We don’t know for sure, but it is an option for those who are interested in employing a novel dietary strategy for disease risk reduction. While severe methionine restriction is rarely advised, a moderate methionine restriction may be beneficial. The most concentrated methionine sources are animal products such as meat, poultry and fish. You will see from the table below that the eating pattern that is lowest in methionine is a purely plant-based diet or vegan diet. Other vegetarian or near-vegetarian diets are lower in methionine than omnivores diets, but not as low as vegan diets. For most people, simply eating a plant-based diet is likely sufficient for reducing methionine intake. Those with metabolic disorders or other conditions that may warrant methionine restriction can further restrict methionine by limiting high methionine plant-based foods. If a methionine restricted diet is indicated for me, how much methionine should I be eating each day?The RDA (recommended dietary allowance) for methionine + cysteine (adults 19 yrs+) is 19 mg/kg/day, while the EAR (estimated average requirement) is 15 mg/kg/day. People should not dip too much below these levels as they represent the lower end of what is needed for human health. Methionine-restricted diets allow 800-1200 mg methionine per day for most adults. For methionine alone, 15 mg/kg is thought to be a reasonable lower limit. So, if a therapeutic, methionine-restricted diet is indicated for you, multiply your healthy body weight by 15 to find a level of methionine intake that is appropriate. Let’s say your healthy body weight is 60 kg, you would need 900 mg methionine per day. Are there any downsides to severely restricting methionine?Absolutely. There is some evidence that a lack of methionine could reduce levels of S-Adenosylmethionine or SAM-e increasing risk of depression. A lack of methionine has also been linked to senile graying of hair. When you restrict methionine you are naturally restricting protein, at least to some degree. Ensuring sufficient protein is essential to health. Protein is necessary for building, strengthening and repairing body tissues, for making antibodies, hormones, enzymes and other compounds that are critical to every body process. A lack of protein can result in muscle loss, increased risk of bone fractures and undesirable changes in hair and skin. Seniors tend to absorb protein less efficiently, so they may need to consume 15-25% more protein than other adults in order to absorb the same amount. So while methionine restriction can be beneficial, it is important that we meet our needs for methionine, and for protein. METHIONINE IN COMMON FOODS(SOURCE: THE USDA NUTRIENT DATABASE RELEASE 28) Methionine (mg/serving)0-50 mg51-100 mg101-150 mg151-200 mg201-250 mg251-300 mg
Life Extension Benefits of Methionine Restriction
by Ben Best
- METHIONINE BASICS
- METHIONINE RESTRICTION EFFECTS
- METHIONINE RESTRICTION FOOD DATA
- METHIONINE RESTRICTION DIET
Methionine is the only essential amino acid containing sulfur. Methionine is the precursor of the other sulfur-containing amino acids: cysteine, taurine, homocysteine, and cystathione. Methionine is essential for the synthesis of proteins and many other biomoleules required for survival. Rats fed a diet without methionine develop fatty liver disease which can be corrected by methionine supplements [DIGESTIVE DISEASES AND SCIENCES; Oz,HS; 53(3):767-776 (2008)]. Dietary methionine is essential for DNA methylation. Reduced DNA methylation results in genetic instability, aberrant gene expression, and increased cancer.
The above paragraph is the first paragraph from the section on methionine in my article dealing with the Methionine Cycle. Material in that article is useful background for the information below. Note, however, that there is an inverse correlation between lifespan and the methionine content of protein in the heart muscle of eight mammalian species [MECHANISMS OF AGEING AND DEVELOPMENT; Ruiz,MC; 126(10):1106-1114 (2005)]. The sulfur-containing amino acids methionine and cysteine are the most readily oxidized of any of the amino acids — both as free amino acids or in proteins. Methionine is oxidized to methionine sulfoxide, but methionine sulfoxide reductases enzymatically regenerate methionine [BIOPHYSICA ET BIOCHEMICA ACTA; Lee,BC; 1790 (11): 1471-1477 (2009)].
Substantial evidence indicates that as much as half of the life-extension benefits of CRAN (Calorie Restriction with Adequate Nutrition) are due to restriction of the single amino acid methionine. In a study of rats given 20% the dietary methionine of control rats, mean lifespan increased 42% and maximum lifespan increased 44% [THE FASEB JOURNAL;Richie,JP; 8(15):1302-1307 (1994)]. Blood glutathione levels were 81% higher in the methionine-restricted rats at maturity, and 164% higher in old age. In other studies, methionine-restricted rats showed greater insulin sensitivity and reduced fat deposition [AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSIOLOGY; Hasek,BE; 299:R728-R739 (2010) and AGING CELL; Malloy,VL; 5(4):305-314 (2006)].
An experiment on mice given 35% the methionine of controls showed only a 7% increase in median life span [JOURNALS OF GERONTOLOGY; Sun,L; 64(7):711-722 (2009)]. Another mouse study showed lowered serum insulin, IGF−1, glucose, and thyroid hormone for methionine at one-third the normal intake. There was significant mouse mortality for methionine less than one-third normal intake, but with one-third intake of methionine maximum lifespan was significantly increased [AGING CELL; Miller,RA; 4(3):119-125 (2005)]. Rats generally show greater longevity benefits from CRAN than mice.
Mitochondrial free radical generation is believed by many biogerontologists to be a significant contributor to aging damage. Rats given 20% the dietary methionine of control rats show significantly decreased free radical generation from complex I and complex III of liver mitochondria as well as from complex I of heart mitochondria — associated with reduced oxidative damage to mitochondrial DNA and protein [THE FASEB JOURNAL;Sanz,A; 20(8):1064-1073 (2006)]. These results are comparable to the reduced mitochondrial free radical generation seen in CRAN rats [ENDOCRINOLOGY; Gredilla,R; 146(9):3713-3717 (2005)]. Rats given 60% rather than 20% of the methionine of control rats showed nearly the same amount of reduced mitochondrial free radical generation and damage [BIOCHEMICA ET BIOPHYSICA ACTA; Lopez-Torres,M; 1780(11):1337-1347 (2008)]. Body weight was not reduced with 60% dietary methionine, leading to the conclusion that such reduction would not result in reduced growth in children [REJUVENATION RESEARCH; Caro,P; 12(6):421-434 (2009)]. It was concluded that methionine restriction is the sole reason for reduced mitochondrial free radical generation and damage associated with CRAN [Ibid.] and protein restriction [BIOGERONTOLOGY; Caro,P; 9(3):183-196 (2008)].
Evidence for the suggestion that methionine oxidation plays a significant role in lifespan can be found in the considerable lifespan extension benefits seen in transgenic fruit flies that overexpress a gene for repairing oxidized methionine in protein [PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES (USA); Ruan,H; 99(5):2748 (2002)]. The sulfur-containing amino acids methionine and cyteine are more easily oxidized in proteins than other amino acids [JOURNAL OF PHYSIOLOGY)], which is apparently related to the reduced free radical generation in mitochondria seen in methionine restriction. Both the fruit fly experiment and the methionine restriction experiments indicate a significant impact on lifespan from methionine oxidation.
It has been suggested that glycine supplementation has the same effect as methionine restriction. An experiment with glycine supplementation in rats showed a 30% extension in maximum lifespan [FASEB JOURNAL; Brind,J; 25:528.2 (2011)]. Additionally, three grams of glycine daily has been shown to improve sleep quality in young (average age 31) female Japanese adults [SLEEP AND BIOLOGICAL RHYTHM; Inagawa,K; 4:75-77 (2006)]
The adjoining table (my Table 1) from [AMERICAN JOURNAL OF CLINICAL NUTRITION; Young,VR; 59(suppl):1203s-1212s (1994)] indicates the essential amino acids most likely to be limited in plant protein foods. Cereal protein contains comparable sulfur-containing amino acids (including methionine) per gram as animal foods, whereas fruit and legume protein contain about 65% as much methionine. Nuts and seeds are particularly high in methionine, on average 20% higher in methionine than animal protein, although the absolute amount of protein in animal foods tends to be higher, which makes total methionine intake generally higher in animal foods. Vegetables are not shown in Table 1, but as described in Table 4 in the AMERICAN JOURNAL OF CLINICAL NUTRITION paper from which Table 1 is taken, vegetables are on average in the 1-2% range for percent protein and fruits are in the 0.5-1% protein range — so neither fruits nor vegetables should be considered serious sources of protein (green peas are an exceptional vegetable with 5.4% protein, and avacado is an exceptional fruit with 2% protein). Cereals are typically 7-13% protein and legumes are typically 20-30% protein (soybeans are exceptionally high in protein even for legumes, being in the range of 35-45% protein).
The dry weight of beef, broccoli, peanuts, and peas is about one-third protein, whereas cereals and fruits are less than 10% dry weight protein. Unlike many other plant proteins, legumes are not particularly low in lysine, and they are close to animal protein in threonine content. Vegetarians attempting to achieve complete protein often combine cereals (which are relatively high in methionine for plant protein) with legumes (which are relatively high in lysine for plant protein).
Lentils and other beans contain high amounts of phytic acid (phosphate-rich inositol), which can chelate positively-charged multivalent mineral ions (especially iron, zinc, magnesium, and calcium), preventing absorption. Soaking lentils and beans in warm water overnight not only makes them easier to cook, it allows some of the phytates to be soaked-out (and thrown-away with the water). Acidic solution (such as vinegar) better removes the phytates. Cooking also helps destroy phytates.
Although it would be very difficult to determine a diet providing optimum methionine for maximum human lifespan — even on the basis of rat experiments — evidence is convincing that reducing dietary methionine can help extend lifespan. The Table 2, listing milligrams of methionine per 100 grams of food (rather than per gram of protein, as in Table 1), could be helpful. Table values are based on [FOOD VALUES OF PORTIONS COMMONLY USED by Jean Pennington (1989)].
The absolute methionine content of a food is better evaluated knowing what the water, fat, carbohydrate, fiber, and protein content of that food is. A higher protein content and a lower methionine content is better than having a low methionine content because the food is low in protein and high in water, fat, or carbohydrate. Lima beans and rice are relatively high in both carbohydrate and methionine. Onions and strawberries are low in methionine, but are high in water and low in protein.
The data for Table 3 is taken from [NUTRITIVE VALUE OF FOODS; USDA Bulletin 72 (1981)], but is adjusted to give percent protein by dry weight. Percent water in the food is not related to the other columns. Fiber content is not given, and I suspect that fiber is equated with carbohydrate. I may have made a few errors, and I suspect that the data contains a few errors (garbage-in, garbage-out). But for the most part I think the data is good, my transcription is accurate, and my calculations are correct.
Brown rice would be more nutritious than white rice, except that the fats in germ that is removed to make white rice can go rancid. Ingestion of Advanced Glycation End-Products (AGES) is detrimental to health.
Table 4gives the percent fat obtained for selected items in the above table, and breaks down the fat into percent saturated, monosaturated, and polyunsaturated fat. Numbers are rounded to the nearest whole number, which is why the total percentages don’t always add to 100. Monosaturated fats and polyunsaturated fats are preferred to unsaturated fats except where there is rancidity. Again, ingestion of Advanced Glycation End-Products (AGES) is detrimental to health. I had no data for non-fat cheese, the only kind of cheese that I eat.
Table 5 gives relative proportions of all of the essential amino acids (plus tyrosine) for some representative high-protein animal foods as well as for some low-methionine plant foods.
Lysine is given after methionine because lysine is most often the limiting amino acid (the essential amino acid found in the smallest quantity relative to requirement) in cereals, nuts, and seeds — but lysine in abundant in legumes, for which methionine is typically the limiting amino acid [AMERICAN JOURNAL OF CLINICAL NUTRITION; Young,VR; 59(suppl):1203s-1212s (1994)]. Lysine is therefore listed second in the table. Leucine is listed third because of its paradoxical ability to reduce fat in high doses [DIABETES; Zhang,Y; 56(6):1647-1654 (2007)] and low doses [DIABETES; Cheng,Y; 59(1):17-25 (2010)]. Leucine and threonine are the limiting amino acid in vegetables and fruits, although vegetables and fruits are too low in protein to be considered significant proteins sources. Trytophan restriction has been shown to have a modest (compared to methionine restriction) ability to extend lifespan in rats [ MECHANISMS OF AGEING AND DEVELOPMENT; Ooka,H; 43(1):79-98 (1988)], reputedly by opposing an age-related increase in brain serotonin.
Tyramine was evaluated because of claims that high dietary tyramine could have adverse reactions with monoamine oxidase inhibitors (I take deprenyl). But none of the foods listed have seriously high levels of tyramine, so tyramine is not really a concern.
Again, this data is taken from [FOOD VALUES OF PORTIONS COMMONLY USED by Jean Pennington (1989)]. I have adjusted the Pennington data to be standardized for 100 grams of food, rather than reproducing the variable quantities of food given, which makes comparison difficult. I may have made transcription errors, but probably not many (if any).
Confusion can be caused by the variable amounts of proteins in the foods. Some foods have high water content (such as onion), or high carbohydrate content (such as rice), or high fat content (such as nuts). To compare relative amounts of methionine in the proteins in the foods, I have created Table 6 in which I have adjusted the values to reflect milligrams of amino acid per gram of protein, rather than the per 100 grams of food used in the previous table. To do this, I first calculate dry weight [(100 − % water) / 100] and then divide by % protein. (Note that Persian/English walnuts contain 60% the protein of black walnuts, mostly because of higher fat content. This creates a misimpression that Persian/English walnuts are much lower in methionine than black walnuts.)
I make no guarantee that I have made no transcription errors in manually copying data from either table to my calculator.
I am searching for foods that are high in protein, but low in methionine, as a source of protein. Preferably the foods should be high in the essential amino acids (other than methionine), and low in fat (especially saturated fat) and low in carbohydrate. As sources of protein, the data in the Table 6 are important in proportion to the percent protein in the food, especially when the water content is low. As long as protein is adequate in the diet overall, other foods that are low in protein and high in water are not much of a concern from a methionine restriction point of view. Legumes offer the best tradeoff of low methionine, and high protein (high essential amino acids), particularly lentils and pinto beans. Adzuki beans would be a contender except that the high fiber content makes them hard to process. I prefer to get my fiber from other sources.
Table 7 was created by dividing methionine amount into the amounts of the other essential amino acids shown in Table 5. Thus, the numbers in the lysine column reflect how many times the lysine content of the food exceed the methionine content.
Pinto beans and lentils are the high-protein foods that show the best low-methionine, high-lysine profile, by a large margin. Lentils, however, are easier to soak before cooking to remove phytates, and produce a bit less odiferous flatulance than pinto beans. Both legumes, however, are high in phytic acid and raffinose oligosaccharides. Humans lack the enzyme to digest raffinose, which passes to the lower intestine where bacteria possessing the digestive enzyme create gases which can be quite odiferous.
Soaking pinto beans for 16 hours at room temperature only reduces raffinose oligosaccharides by 10%, and 90 minutes of cooling only cuts the raffinose oligosaccharide content in half [JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL AND FOOD CHEMISTRY; Song,D; 54(4):1296-1301 (2006)].
Just as the objective of calorie restriction is not to live without calories, methionine is an essential amino acid that can be reduced to 60% normal consumption to obtain most of the benefit [BIOGERONTOLOGY; Caro,P; 9(3):183-196 (2008)]. That dietary objective can be met without the need to consume legumes.
Vegan mom fed her 11-month-old only fruit and nuts. Now she faces child endangerment charges. – The Washington PostAuthor: SupremePundit
She was proud to be a vegan and wanted her son to live like she did. But her family members said she took her food choices too far — her diet became a danger, in their eyes, something closer to an obsession than a healthy lifestyle.
“She was going to live on water and sunlight,” her sister-in-law told CBS Pittsburgh.
When the 33-year-old woman from western Pennsylvania, Elizabeth Hawk, began feeding her 11-month-old child sparse meals of only fruit and nuts, however, that was beyond the pale.
The boy developed what the sister-in-law, Brandy Hawk, described as a severe rash. He seemed to have lost control of his motor skills, she said, rendering his hands useless. Elizabeth Hawk said allergies were the reason for his apparent malaise, not the diet.
That argument did not convince Jerry Hawk, Elizabeth’s separated husband and the father of the child. He removed his son from his estranged wife’s care, taking the boy to a Children & Youth Services agency in nearby Fayette County. From there, reported Philly.com, the agency took the child to a hospital in West Virginia.
An attending physician said the lack of nutritious food, according to Pennsylvania’s WKBN, caused a “failure to thrive.” Malnourishment had hindered the boy’s ability to develop, and ignoring the skin condition could have led to septic shock.
It is not inevitable that a vegan-only menu would doom young children to sickness or starvation, as The Washington Post wrote in July. But a commitment to veganism can make raising a healthy child more challenging, as parents must ensure that a child ingests sufficient calories and the correct balance of nutrients. In 2001, for instance, a pair of vegetarian nutritionists published recommendations for vegan infants in the Journal of the American Dietetic Association:
“For the first 4 to 6 months, breast milk should be the sole food with soy-based infant formula as an alternative. Commercial soymilk should not be the primary beverage until after age 1 year. Breastfed vegan infants may need supplements of vitamin B-12 if maternal diet is inadequate; older infants may need zinc supplements and reliable sources of iron and vitamins D and B-12. Timing of solid food introduction is similar to that recommended for non-vegetarians. Tofu, dried beans, and meat analogs are introduced as protein sources around 7-8 months. Vegan diets can be planned to be nutritionally adequate and support growth for infants.”
The young boy now lives with his father. Brandy Hawk, the sister-in-law, told CBS Pittsburgh the child is “doing great” and has “turned completely around.”
Elizabeth Hawk faces charges of child endangerment and was released on her own recognizance. A preliminary hearing has been set for Nov. 14, Philly.com reported.
Volunteer football coach dismissed for making boy run laps after he bullied teammate – The Washington PostAuthor: SupremePundit
Anyone who has spent any time on the gridiron — even at a young age — likely knows the typical punishments a coach will dole out if his rules aren’t followed. There are “suicides,” a grueling running exercise in which participants have to run to the 20-yard line, touch it, then run back to the end zone (then the 30, then the 40, etc.). If you’re in “Friday Night Lights,” there’s running up a muddy hill in the rain then walking back home. And then there are typical, old-fashioned laps around the field,
Psychologists say being unable to find a job can change your personality
When you’re out of work, you may become less friendly, less hard-working, and less open to new experiences.
A prominent local media executive fired from Yahoo last year has filed a lawsuit alleging the firm’s CEO Marissa Mayer led a campaign to purge male employees and replace them with women.
Misandry at work by the man haters again!
A prominent local media executive fired from Yahoo last year has filed a lawsuit accusing CEO Marissa Mayer of leading a campaign to purge male employees.
“Mayer encouraged and fostered the use of (an employee performance-rating system) to accommodate management’s subjective biases and personal opinions, to the detriment of Yahoo’s male employees,” said the suit by Scott Ard filed this week in federal district court in San Jose.
Ard, who worked for Yahoo for 3 ½ years until January 2015, is now editor-in-chief of the Silicon Valley Business Journal. His lawsuit also claims that Yahoo illegally fired large numbers of workers ousted under a performance-rating system imposed by Mayer. That allegation was not tied to gender.
Yahoo spokeswoman Carolyn Clark said Yahoo couldn’t comment on pending litigation, but she defended the company’s performance-review process, which she said was guided by “fairness.”
“Our performance-review process was developed to allow employees at all levels of the company to receive meaningful, regular and actionable feedback from others,” Clark said. “We believe this process allows our team to develop and do their best work. Our performance-review process also allows for high performers to engage in increasingly larger opportunities at our company, as well as for low performers to be transitioned out.”
In addition to Mayer, two other female executives — Kathy Savitt, former chief marketing officer, and Megan Liberman, editor-in-chief of Yahoo News, identified in the lawsuit as Yahoo’s vice president of news at the time — are accused in the lawsuit of discriminating on the basis of gender.
“When Savitt began at Yahoo the top managers reporting to her … including the chief editors of the verticals and magazines, were less than 20 percent female. Within a year and a half those top managers were more than 80 percent female,”
the lawsuit said. “Savitt has publicly expressed support for increasing the number of women in media and has intentionally hired and promoted women because of their gender, while terminating, demoting or laying off male employees because of their gender.
“Of the approximately 16 senior-level editorial employees hired or promoted by Savitt … in approximately an 18-month period, 14 of them, or 87 percent, were female,” the lawsuit said.
Ard, who was hired at Yahoo in 2011, stated in the suit that until Savitt and Liberman took over management of the firm’s media section in early 2014, he had received performance reviews and stock options reflecting “fully satisfactory” work. But in June 2014, Liberman told him that his role as head of editorial programming for Yahoo’s home page was being given to a woman Liberman had recently hired, the suit said.
Then in January 2015, during a performance review phone call, Liberman told Ard he was fired, effective that day, because “his performance was not satisfactory.”
“Liberman stated that she was terminating (Ard) because she had not received a requested breakdown of (his) duties. (Ard) had already provided that very information as requested, however, and reminded Liberman that he had done so,” the lawsuit said. “Liberman’s excuse for terminating (Ard) was a pretext.”
Right after the call, Ard requested a copy of his performance review and said he wanted to appeal his firing, the suit said. “Both requests were denied and (Ard) was ordered to turn in his laptop and depart the premises immediately.”
Ard’s suit also takes aim at the performance-review process he said Mayer imposed. The process allowed high-level managers to arbitrarily change scores of employees they had no contact with, and it “permitted and encouraged discrimination based on gender or any other personal bias held by management.”
Liberman, he said, once “unilaterally lowered” the scores of three men whose performance Ard had evaluated, while she maintained the scores of two women.
Yahoo’s use of this review system to fire many workers individually in a short time period broke the U.S. and California Worker Adjustment and Retraining Notification (WARN) acts, which mandate advance notification of mass layoffs, the suit alleged. “Marissa Mayer became CEO on a wave of optimism and then engaged in a sleight of hand to terminate large numbers of employees without announcing a single layoff,” the suit said.
Yahoo’s diversity reports indicate that the percentage of women in leadership positions at the company rose slightly to 24 percent in 2015 from 23 percent in 2014.
Yahoo Inc last year secretly built a custom software program to search all of its customers’ incoming emails for specific information provided by U.S. intelligence officials, according to people familiar with the matter.
a 1989 study of chronic users showed a maximum detection window of 25 days at a sensitivity of 20 ng/mL. Yet he points out that only one subject tested positive after 14 days, and it took an average of just 9.8 days before cannabinoid levels were no longer detectible. And while a 1984 study testing chronic users at a cutoff of 50 ng/mL showed a maximum of 40 days to get clean, 8 out of the 10 subjects needed only 13 days to show their first negative.
“Having a plan could be the difference between life and death.”
An axe, life vest, and helmet…….
The idea of using the body’s immune system to fight cancer has been around for a century, but only in the past half a dozen years have dramatic breakthroughs begun rocking the medical world.
“That’s when the tsunami came,” says Drew Pardoll, director of the Bloomberg-Kimmel Institute for Cancer Immunology at Johns Hopkins University, and those advances are spawning hundreds of clinical trials nationwide, plus generating intense interest from patients, physicians and investors. Yet researchers remember the past anti-cancer efforts that fizzled after initially showing promise — which explains why most say daunting hurdles and years of perseverance are still ahead.
Here’s a primer about the new treatments and how they work:
What is cancer immunotherapy?
Immunotherapy is a significantly different approach from conventional treatments such as chemotherapy or radiation. The latter attack the malignancy itself, while immunotherapy aims to empower the immune system to kill it.
Because of the immune system’s unique power, says the nonprofit Cancer Research Institute, this therapy could prove a formidable weapon against many kinds of cancer and offer long-term protection with reduced side effects.
Which immunotherapies are sparking excitement?
Two types of immunotherapy are drawing most of the interest: checkpoint inhibitors, which remove “brakes” from the immune system, allowing it to see and go after cancer; and CAR T-cell therapy, which involves a more customized attack.
“Checkpoint” inhibitors are designed to block the ability of certain proteins to blunt or weaken the response of the immune system so it can’t recognize and go after abnormal cells. In normal times, such checkpoint proteins keep the immune system from being too aggressive and damaging the body. But cancer sometimes hijacks them and uses them to suppress the immune system’s response to disease.
The Food and Drug Administration has cleared four checkpoint inhibitors for adults: Yervoy, also known as ipilimumab; Keytruda, or pembrolizumab; Opdivo, or nivolumab, and Tecentriq, or atezolizumab. The drugs are approved for malignancies including melanoma and Hodgkin lymphoma, as well as lung, kidney and bladder cancer. The treatments also are being tested in a wide range of other cancers.
Former president Jimmy Carter was treated with Keytruda, surgery and radiation for advanced melanoma last year. He announced in December that all signs of his cancer had disappeared.
In CAR T-cell therapy, T cells — a key part of the immune system — are removed from a patient, genetically modified in the lab to target a specific cancer and infused back into the person. This treatment, available only in clinical trials, is being tested mainly for leukemia and lymphoma. The Food and Drug Administration is likely to approve the first CAR T-cell treatment next year or in 2018.
Of these two immunotherapy approaches, most research and investor interest is focused on checkpoint inhibitors. That’s because they are off-the-shelf treatments that are much easier to administer than customized T-cell therapy, said Crystal Mackall, a former National Cancer Institute researcher who’s now leading immunotherapy trials for Stanford University School of Medicine.
What are some of the main challenges in immunotherapy?
Among the biggest challenges are increasing the response rate among patients and turning initial responses into long-lasting remissions. CAR T-cell therapy often produces a high remission rate in blood-disorder trials, but a significant percentage of patients relapse.
Checkpoint inhibitors induce responses — signaling a tumor has been shrunk or stabilized — in an average of just about 20 percent of patients, said oncologist Elizabeth Jaffee, the deputy director of the Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center at Hopkins. Researchers need to understand why only some cases and some cancers respond. Why, for example, the treatment benefits melanoma but not pancreatic cancer. They think the key to improving effectiveness will be coming up with combination treatments, as happened with AIDS. Jaffee points out that the tide was turned against that disease only after researchers figured out how to use a “cocktail” of medications to keep people with HIV from developing AIDS.
Nationwide, combination trials are testing the simultaneous use of two or more checkpoint inhibitors, a checkpoint inhibitor with a CAR T-cell therapy or an immunotherapy plus radiation and chemotherapy. But combining these can increase safety risks.
Jill O’Donnell-Tormey, chief executive of the Cancer Research Institute, said researchers also are trying to understand tumors’ “micro-environments,” which contain cells and other factors that appear to sometimes suppress the immune system’s response to cancer. The institute, along with the American Association for Cancer Research and two European groups, sponsored the three-day conference in New York.
What are immunotherapy’s downsides?
By revving up the immune system, immunotherapy can cause sometimes serious damage to healthy tissue and organs. Researchers are working on ways to limit or even reverse the potential toxicity, but much work needs to be done.
CAR T-cell therapy poses two types of safety risks. Almost all patients get sick with flu-like symptoms, including high fever and pain, a week or so after the treatment; some end up in intensive care. The treatment also can cause brain swelling that can be fatal.
Yet standard treatments have major side effects as well. Chemotherapy and radiation, when used for children with leukemia, can cause long-term problems such as secondary cancers, infertility and heart damage. In many ways, researchers say, immunotherapy is less toxic over the long term and might eventually be a good first-line alternative to chemo and radiation.
Immunotherapy can carry higher price tags. For example, Merck’s checkpoint inhibitor, Keytruda, costs about $150,000 a year. Once CAR T-cell therapies are approved by the Food and Drug Administration, they may cost hundreds of thousands of dollars a year, according to some analysts. If the treatments are used as directed by the agency, chances are good that insurance will pay for at least some of that.
Does immunotherapy work for children?
Immunotherapy in kids is a mixed picture.
Checkpoint inhibitors are only now being tested extensively in children, so it will take time to see how well they work. But very early-stage studies suggest that they may not be as effective as in adults. One theory holds that these drugs work better in cancers with many mutations — and pediatric cancers tend to have many fewer mutations.
CAR T-cell treatment, on the other hand, is being widely tested in children and has shown impressive effectiveness against acute lymphoblastic leukemia, the most common childhood leukemia.
How do I find immunotherapy treatments?
Talk first to your doctor, who should be able to help you find appropriate medication or clinical trials for unapproved treatment. Trials sponsored by the National Cancer Institute can be found at trials.cancer.gov. Studies also are listed on the website ClinicalTrials.gov –though that doesn’t signify government endorsement or approval. Another resource is the Cancer Research Institute’s Clinical Trial Finder.
While confident that immunotherapy will play an increasing role in cancer treatment, researchers must overcome some obstacles.
Driven by technological progress, human life expectancy has increased greatly since the nineteenth century. Demographic evidence has revealed an ongoing reduction in old-age mortality and a rise of the maximum age at death, which may gradually extend human longevity. Together with observations that lifespan in various animal species is flexible and can be increased by genetic or pharmaceutical intervention, these results have led to suggestions that longevity may not be subject to strict, species-specific genetic constraints. Here, by analysing global demographic data, we show that improvements in survival with age tend to decline after age 100, and that the age at death of the world’s oldest person has not increased since the 1990s. Our results strongly suggest that the maximum lifespan of humans is fixed and subject to natural constraints.
Next Big Future: Research towards enabling minds as healthy and productive as twenty year olds in people who are 60-80Author: SupremePundit