Archive for February, 2015

IPCC Chief Resigns after Sexual Harassment Accusations – Scientific American.

As it should be.  I feel sorry for both of them…..


91-year-old Ohio man who says he killed wife of 65 years out of mercy leaves prison early | Fox News.

8 Facts About Vitamin D and Rheumatoid Arthritis – Rheumatoid Arthritis.


The Typical American’s Net Worth By Age: Here’s Where You Stand.


E. coli: More than 80 percent of cases were a result of eating beef and row crops such as leafy green vegetables.

Salmonella: Though this type of bacteria can end up in a large variety of foods, 77 percent of cases were related to eggs, chicken, beef, bean sprouts, pork and seeded fruits and vegetables such as melons and tomatoes.

Campylobacter: Dairy is the primary culprit for infections caused by this type of bacteria, with 66 percent coming from raw milk and cheeses such as unpasteurized queso fresco. Chicken accounted for 8 percent of campylobacter infections.

Listeria: Though data on this type of bacteria is less robust, the report finds fruits such as cantaloupe accounted for about half of all listeria infections; dairy was to blame in about 31 percent of cases

It’s happened to just about everybody at one time or another — the awful gastrointestinal symptoms of food poisoning. One out of six Americans suffer a bout of it each year, and one of the most common causes is foodborne bacteria.

A new report by a collaboration of U.S. federal health agencies finds that potentially lethal bacteria in food is to blame for some 9 million cases of illness annually. Some 55,000 people a year are hospitalized for illnesses caused by foodborne bacteria, and 1,000 die.

In an effort to cut down on such illnesses, health officials have come up with a new method for analyzing data on outbreaks to help figure out which foods are most likely to make people sick. It looks at food safety trends involving the four most common varieties of foodborne bacteria: salmonella, e. coli, listeria and campylobacter.

The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration and the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s Food Safety and Inspection Service joined forces to create the Interagency Food Safety Analytics Collaboration and issue the report. The study used data from nearly 1,000 outbreaks that occurred from 1998 to 2012.

“Determining the types of food that cause foodborne illnesses will not only guide efforts to improve food safety, but will also help identify opportunities to influence food safety policy,” the report states.

Among its key findings, it broke down which types of food are most likely to harbor common types of bacteria:

E. coli: More than 80 percent of cases were a result of eating beef and row crops such as leafy green vegetables.

Salmonella: Though this type of bacteria can end up in a large variety of foods, 77 percent of cases were related to eggs, chicken, beef, bean sprouts, pork and seeded fruits and vegetables such as melons and tomatoes.

Campylobacter: Dairy is the primary culprit for infections caused by this type of bacteria, with 66 percent coming from raw milk and cheeses such as unpasteurized queso fresco. Chicken accounted for 8 percent of campylobacter infections.

Listeria: Though data on this type of bacteria is less robust, the report finds fruits such as cantaloupe accounted for about half of all listeria infections; dairy was to blame in about 31 percent of cases.


Report determines biggest culprits of foodborne illness – CBS News.

Because scientific studies are examining the role of magnesium in alleviating or circumventing many commonly occurring chronic ailments, it is important to be educated on the variations in magnesium supplements; especially magnesium orotate, the best form of the mineral supplement.

Magnesium is not easily absorbed in the body unless first attached to transporting substance. For this reason, many supplement manufacturers have “chelated” magnesium to organic and amino acids. A few of these include magnesium oxide, magnesium sulfate and magnesium carbonate. Quality depends on the amount of magnesium in the supplement and how bioavailable it is. Bioavailability refers to the amount of magnesium in the supplement that can be assimilated by the digestive system and used for cellular activity and health benefit

Magnesium is one of those supplements that is very well known for its benefits throughout the natural health community. Magnesium is involved in over 300 biochemical processes in the body. One of its most important functions is that it plays a key role is producing energy, this Elementmakes it vitality important for all cellular functions and processes. It helps maintain normal muscle and nerve function, keeps heart rhythm regular, supports a healthy immune system, and keeps bones strong. Its wide range of health benefits and biological activity make it effective in addressing a number of common diseases and conditions including fibromyalgia, chronic pain, diabetes, osteoporosis, cardiovascular disease and headaches. Numerous studies have demonstrated that magnesium supplementation and correction of deficiency has improved the aforementioned conditions. The problem with this essential mineral is that most people do not have sufficient levels for optimal health. A gradual depletion of nutrients from our soils has left many vegetables with lower levels of magnesium. Another factor that contributes to magnesium deficiency is that it often is depleted by various common conditions (i.e. IBS, Crohn’s disease) and medications (i.e. proton pump inhibitors, diuretics).
For a more complete discussion please see the article The Many Faces of Magnesium in the Heart Health issue of Advances.

As a supplement, magnesium is most commonly found in small amounts in multivitamins and in certain over the counter laxatives. Minerals such as magnesium or calcium are combined with another molecule to stabilize the compound. Each combination, referred to as a chelate, (such as magnesium citrate) has different absorption, bioavailability and therapeutic value. These additional molecules can really impact the medicinal value of the magnesium and some even have beneficial effects in their own right. The most common forms and their benefits are listed below.

Magnesium-L-Threonate: This form of magnesium has recently been studied to improve memory and brain function. One preliminary study in animals found that it significantly enhanced both short-term and long-term memory, boosting scores by 15% for short-term memory and 54% for long-term memory compared to magnesium citrate.8 Based on this study, it appears that magnesium-L-threonate is a highly absorbable form of magnesium that can improve brain function. While this research is promising, more is needed to confirm its benefit.

Magnesium Pidolate (or picolinate): This form of magnesium has generated interest because it is very inexpensive and can easily be made into a liquid supplement. There really have not been any substantial research trials supporting its specific health benefits. The down side of this form is that the pidolate molecule does not have any additional health benefits.

Magnesium oxide: Often used in milk of magnesia products since this form has a strong laxative effect. Even though this combination contains a large proportion of magnesium compared to the oxide molecule, it has poor bioavailability and readily causes loose stools; therefore it is considered the least optimal form to use as a supplement. Also referred to as “Magnesia”, magnesium oxide is commonly used therapeutically as a laxative and relief for acid reflux. This type of magnesium shows high levels of concentration, but poor levels of bioavailability (only 4%).

Magnesium sulfate: This form is often used as an intravenous preparation but it is not used in oral formulations. Since it does have some absorbability through the skin, . An inorganic form of magnesium with an elemental concentration of 10% and lower levels of bioavailability. Magnesium sulfate contains magnesium and sulfer and oxygen; it’s commonly referred to as Epsom Salt.

Magnesium citrate: A commonly used form that has a good bioavailability compared to oxide. It is also very rapidly absorbed in the digestive tract but it does have a stool loosening effect.1 This form is found in many supplements and remains a solid option for delivering magnesium into the body. Derived from the magnesium salt of citric acid, this form of magnesium has lower concentration, but a high level of bioavalibity (90%). Magnesium citrate is commonly used as to induce a bowel movement, but has also been studied for kidney stone prevention.

Magnesium Amino Acid Chelate

A mineral chelate form of magnesium containing an ion of magnesium oxide connected to a mixture of some other form of amino acid. This could be a lactate, a glycine, aspartate or arginate, etc. The best chelated amino acid form of magnesium is aspartate or arginate.

Magnesium Aspartate: This form has increased bioavailability compared to oxide and citrate. There were some promising clinical trials conducted in the 1960s that found a combination of magnesium and potassium aspartates had a positive effect on fatigue and they reduced muscle hyper-excitability. Physiologically this makes sense since both magnesium and aspartic acid are critical players in cellular energy production. This form is not commonly found but has been used for chronic fatigue syndrome.

Magnesium Chloride

A form of magnesium showing moderate concentrations, but higher levels of bioavalibity when compared to magnesium oxide. Magnesium chloride has many uses, most commonly to help manufacture paper, some types of cements and fireproofing agents.

Magnesium Lactate

This type of magnesium shows moderate concentrations, but higher levels of bioavalibity as compared to magnesium oxide. Magnesium lactate is a mineral supplement that is most commonly used for treating digestive issues. Magnesium lactate should be avoided by those with kidney disease or kidney-related problems.

Magnesium Carbonate

This form of magnesium has moderate levels of elemental concentration and 30% bioavalibity rates. Magnesium carbonate has a strong laxative-effect when taken in high amounts. It is also commonly known as chalk, and is used as a drying agent by pitchers, gymnasts, rock climbers and weight lifters.

Magnesium Glycinate, Malate & Taurates

Chelated forms of magnesium holding moderate to low concentrations and higher levels of bioavailability. All three types of magnesium have a variety of uses, but none are as beneficial as the previous magnesium supplements listed above.

Magnesium Glycinate: Glycine is a well-known calming amino acid. This combination has good bioavailability and does not have a laxative effect since glycine is actively transported through the intest                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 inal wall. Due to the calming and relaxing effect of both glycine and magnesium, this combination has been used successfully for chronic pain and muscle hyper tonicity.

A magnesium supplement is best taken with calcium, for this reason, I developed IntraCal, it provides the best ratio of calcium and magnesium orotate.

– Dr. Edward F. Group III, DC, ND, DACBN, DCBCN, DABFM

Magnesium Malate: This less well-known combination has been studied for use in fibromyalgia. Since malate is a substrate in the cellular energy cycle, it can help improve ATP production; there is some preliminary evidence that it may reduce muscle pain and tender points in fibromyalgia patients.4

o-DR-OZ-HEALTHY-HEART-facebookMagnesium Orotate: This is another relatively unknown chelate combination containing orotic acid. This form has good bioavailability has had been studied specifically for heart health. Orotates can penetrate cell membranes, enabling the effective delivery of the magnesium ion to the innermost layers of the cellular mitochondria and nucleus. Orotates themselves increase the formation of RNA and DNA which can help heart cells repair and therefore improve function. The combination has been shown to improve heart failure, symptoms of angina and exercise performance in clinical trials.5,6 The most effective form of magnesium supplement, created through the use of the mineral salts of orotic acid. Both plants and animals use orotates to create DNA and RNA. Extensive scientific research by Dr. Hans A. Nieper, M.D. shows orotates can penetrate cell membranes, enabling the effective delivery of the magnesium ion to the innermost layers of the cellular mitochondria and nucleus. Magnesium orotate contains many properties that can help protect you and your health, while offering your cells the most readily absorbable form of magnesium on the market today.

Magnesium Taurate: Both magnesium and the amino acid taurine share the ability to improve cardiac function; each has a potentiating effect on insulin sensitivity and also a calming effect on neuromuscular excitability. The actions of both have striking similarities when it comes to cardiovascular health. They both have blood pressure reducing effects, stabilize nerve cells, improve the contraction of the heart muscle and have an anti-thrombotic effect.7 Additionally, low levels of vitamin B6 have been shown to further deplete both magnesium and taurine.

Due to its broad ranging beneficial effects, magnesium has really emerged as a quintessential health supplement with an excellent safety profile. Various forms of magnesium can be employed for specific health concerns and to increase bioavailability. Consider the research evidence and activity of each form to choose one that is most appropriate for you.

1) Coudray C, Rambeau M, Feillet-Coudray C, Gueux E, Tressol JC, Mazur A, Rayssiguier Y: Study of magnesium bioavailability from ten organic and inorganic Mg salts in Mg- depleted rats using a stable isotope approach. Magnes Res 2005;18:215–223.
2) Nagle FJ, Balke B, Ganslen RV, Davis AW. The mitigation of physical fatigue with “Spartase”. FAA Office of Aviation Medicine Reports. Rep Civ Aeromed Res Inst US. 1963 Jul;26:1-10.
3) Lamontagne C, Sewell JA, Vaillancourt R, Kuhzarani C, (2012) Rapid Resolution of Chronic Back Pain with Magnesium Glycinate in a Pediatric Patient. J Pain Relief 1:101
4) Abraham GE, Flechas JD. Management of Fibromyalgia: Rationale for the Use of Magnesium and Malic Acid. Journal of Nutritional Medicine (1992) 3, 49-59.
5) Stepura OB, Tomaeva FE, Zvereva TV. Orotic acid as a metabolic agent. Vestn Ross Akad Med Nauk. 2002; (2): 39-41.
6) Geiss KR, Stergiou N, Jester, Neuenfeld HU, Jester HG. Effects of magnesium orotate on exercise tolerance in patients with coronary heart disease. Cardiovasc Drugs Ther. 1998 Sep; 12 Suppl 2:153-6.
7) McCarty MF. Complementary Vascular-Protective Actions of Magnesium and Taurine: A Rationale for Magnesium Taurate. Medical Hypotheses (1996) 46. 89-100
8) Slutsky I, Abumaria N, Wu LJ, et al. Enhancement of learning and memory by elevating brain magnesium. Neuron. 2010 Jan 28;65(2):165-77


  1. Classen HG. Magnesium orotate–experimental and clinical evidence. Rom J Intern Med. 2004;42(3):491-501. Review.
  2. Zeana C. Magnesium orotate in myocardial and neuronal protection. Rom J Intern Med. 1999 Jan-Mar;37(1):91-7. Review.
  3. Albrecht E, Kirkham KR, Liu SS, Brull R. The analgesic efficacy and safety of neuraxial magnesium sulphate: a quantitative review. Anaesthesia. 2013 Feb;68(2):190-202. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2044.2012.07337.x. Epub 2012 Nov 1. Review.
  4. Dufault R, LeBlanc B, Schnoll R, Cornett C, Schweitzer L, Wallinga D, Hightower J, Patrick L, Lukiw WJ. Mercury from chlor-alkali plants: measured concentrations in food product sugar. Environ Health. 2009 Jan 26;8:2. doi: 10.1186/1476-069X-8-2.


  1. Maria

    QUESTION: Would I be overdosing myself with Magnesium L-Threonate and after an hour took some Magnesium Glycinate? Thank you for specifying the different types of magnesium. I took Magnesium L-Threonate thinking it would calm me down as I was having mild anxiety attacks and no benefits after an hour. Decided to take Magnesium Glycinate, felt a difference of calmness!

    1. Dr. Hrkal

      Hi Maria,
      I don’t think you would be overdosing with combo. You really can’t over dose on magnesium since excess is just excreted in the digestive tract.
      Glad to hear you found relief!

      Dr Paul Hrkal ND

      1. Gene

        Dr. Hrkal,
        which type of magnesium is best for depression please?

        1. Dr. Hrkal

          Hi Gene,

          There isn’t a form of magnesium studied for depression specifically even though there is evidence that low magnesium levels are most likely related to depression. See the following studies.

          I would stick to a well absorbed form of magnesium with good bowel tolerance like glycinate or malate.

          Hope that helps

          Dr Paul Hrkal

  2. Camille

    Good article. I have read studies that showed the benefits of supplementing magnesium during pregnancy but none indicated which form is best or used during pregnancy. Are you familiar with this?

    1. Dr. Hrkal

      Hi Camille,

      Thanks for reading the article. Magnesium (and calcium) are important to take during pregnancy to prevent muscle cramps and healthy bone formation. There has not been any specific form studied but citrate, malate or glycinate are well absorbed and safe for both mother and baby.

      Hope that helps

      Dr Paul Hrkal ND

  3. Patricia Grimes

    I’m a 85 year old widow and would like to take magnesium for my leg cramps.
    I take Clopidogel Bisulfate for a heart stent and Losartan 100 mg. for blood pressure.
    Could you tell me what type of magnesium would be best for me?
    Will appreciate your reply.

    1. Dr. Hrkal

      Hello Patricia,

      Thank you for the inquiry. Unfortunately we can’t recommend specific products for you on this forum. I would recommend you consult a qualified healthcare practitioner to make sure that your supplements are safe with the medications you are on. I can say that most forms of magnesium are useful for leg cramps. I would direct you to a form such as magnesium malate, that is easily absorbed and does not cause loose stools.

      Dr Paul Hrkal ND

  4. Mark

    I have restless leg which seems to be getting worse. I was told potassium would help. I have been taking nearly 2000 mg with only very slight improvement. I want to add Magnesium, which form would you recommend?

    1. Dr. Hrkal

      Hi Mark,

      Any form for magnesium would work except magnesium oxide. Magnesium citrate has a fast absorption so that is something you can take before bed. Magnesium glycinate has a calming effect and mag malate is great for muscle pain. Remember magnesium stores are built up over time so it may take a few months to see lasting benefits but usually people see an improvement quickly.

      Dr Paul Hrkal ND

  5. Sara

    Hi there,

    I’m just wondering what the best form of magnesium would be in order to get as many benefits as possible. Do you have to get each type of magnesium separately, or is there a way to get them all in one form of magnesium? If you do have to get them all separately, is it okay to mix them together and use all at once?

    1. Dr. Hrkal

      Hi Sara,

      Sorry for the late response. I don’t think you need to take all the forms to get the benefits of magnesium. Any of the amino acid combinations of magnesium will give you the benefits of repleting magnesium plus the effects of the amino acids. I would pick a magnesium form that best fits your goals (i.e. magnesium orotate if you have cardio vascular concern) and stick with it for a few months to build your levels. Magnesium glycinate or malate are my favorite for general health since they have a broad spectrum benefit on muscles.

      If you want feel free to mix them but a better approach would be to take each one for a period of time and rotate so you get the benefits of each. This way you amy be even able to tell which form you feel the best with. This will help guide you which form is best for you.

      Hope that helps
      Dr Paul Hrkal

  6. Roger

    Hello Dr. Hrkal,

    Your article list the benefits of different forms of magnesium that have different health attributes. My question is once cellular magnesium levels have reached optimal status. Would the benefits of Orotate’s effect on RNA & DNA be achieved? As such would L-Threonate benefits to cross the BBB be achieved as well. I guess my question is are these health benefits attributed to the FORM or magnesium. Thank you in advance

    1. Dr. Hrkal

      Hi Roger,

      Great question. The benefits of ortotate or threonate would be effective right from the start of supplementation since they have an independent and distinct therapeutic benefit. That being said, the evidence suggests that it can take months to replete cellular magnesium levels depending on the intestinal absorption and previous level of deficiency. It’s also very difficult to accurately measure this. So assuming that after 3 months of rigorous supplementation you achieve optimal magnesium levels the benefit of orotate would be there throughout this time since the effects are independent. You could argue that once magnesium levels are optimal orotate would be more effective but they are not needed for it to be effective.

      The form of magnesium makes a big difference but the effects are not necessary tied together. The added benefit of “amino acid” forms of magnesium it that they are actively absorbed compare to citrate or oxide so they don’t cause loose stools are easily.

      Hope that helps
      Dr Paul Hrkal

  7. Janni


    I’ve recently discovered that most magnesium supplements contain dicalcium phosphate. Is there any calcium-free form?

    Thanks in advance.

    1. Justine

      Hi Janni, there are many quality magnesium supplements that don’t contain calcium diphosphate. Calcium diphosphate can be used either as a source of calcium to make a cal-mag type of product, or it can be used as a type of flow agent or bulking agent to help the product go into the capsule better. But there are lots of magnesium supplements that don’t have any type of calcium in them. None of AOR’s magnesium products contain calcium.

  8. Betty


    I want to take some bone health products like calcium, vitamin D, vitamin K2 and magnesium. What type of magnesium do you recommend and how much?

    1. Dr. Hrkal

      Hi Betty,

      Thanks for the question. Any of the amino acid magnesiums (glycinate, aspartate, malate etc.) or citrate are good for bone health. Just stay away from magnesium oxide because its an inferior form that is poorly absorbed and causes loose stools.
      The recommended amount usually is 500mg.

      Hope that helps

      Dr Paul Hrkal ND

  9. Adnan

    What is your opinion on Magnesium Oil?

    1. Dr. Hrkal

      Hi Adnan,

      Some people really advocate for the use of magnesium oil for topical application to relieve muscle pain. While there are some reports of improvement in symptoms, this way of getting magnesium has not been studied nor is a good way to address systemic deficiency. There really isn’t a good way to assess if topical application is actually getting into the body other then patient feedback. I personally stick to oral magnesium products since my clinical experience and the research supports this administration route.

      Hope that helps
      Dr Paul Hrkal

  10. Jessica Ann

    I have been taking 400 mg magnesium oxide once a day for about 2 weeks and I have been feeling very dizzy. Could this be a possible side effect? I have hyperparathyroidism and am below normal levels magnesium and phosphorus but high blood calcium and pth. Thank you

    1. Dr. Hrkal

      HI Jessica,

      Its tough to tell if your symptoms are related to the mag oxide. Magnesium can lower blood pressure which can lead to symptoms such as dizziness. I would stop the supplement to see if the symptoms persist. If they do persist see you doctor.

      Hope that helps
      Dr Paul Hrkal ND

  11. rosalind

    Which form of magnesium would be the best to use for severe constipation even though I eat fresh fruit, dark leafy greens each day and plenty of water since I stopped eating gluten. My antibodies were elevated on a blood test to 5.6ug/ml ( the normal range was <2.0 so I was told to avoid wheat,etc. I used to eat a lot of whole grains everyday with all of the above to keep myself regular. I am really afraid of becoming dependent. It is impossible to get enough whole grains without wheat.

    1. Dr. Hrkal

      Thanks for the question

      Magnesium citrate would be the best to promote bowel movement. Keep increasing the dose little by little each day until you get loose stools. Then reduce dose by half. The absorption is on par with the best amino acid chelate forms of magnesium but it still can offset constipation. If you are gluten sensitive then magnesium is poorly absorbed so I would recommend you continue magnesium supplementation as you get your diet in order.

      Hope that helps
      Dr Paul Hrkal ND

      Hope that helps

  12. rosalind

    I definitely feel better since I stopped the gluten( except for the severe constipation)

  13. Simi

    I was taking magnesium malate 850 mg each day for muscle pain.Now, I am having stomach acid problem. I have cut magnesium malate dose to less then 425 mg. For stomach acid problem, which magnesium would be the good one?
    Thank you

    1. Dr. Hrkal

      Thanks for the question Simi,

      My understanding of your question is that you have reflux after taking magnesium malate (“stomach acid problem”).
      Magnesium is very well tolerated and usually doesn’t cause digestive or stomach upset when taken at the recommended doses. There is no one form that is best at minimizing the effect on stomach acid except avoiding magnesium oxide. The only thing you can do is reduce the dose (which you are trying) or change to a different form. Try AOR’s new advanced magnesium complex for a combo of the most absorbable forms.

      There are many other reasons for reflux. I would consult your healthcare practitioner if the problem persists.

      Best of luck,

      Dr Paul Hrkal ND

  14. Ken

    Hi: I’m a 67 year old male and have been diagnosed with atherosclerosis with a moderate calcium score in the aorta, and also occasional palpitations, nonetheless have worked out regularly for years. Was taking magnesium oxide for a year or two until discovering it’s probably the least effective of the magnesium supplements (actually it seemed to help the palpitations some). Also just upped my Vitamin D3 and added K1 and K2. Was wondering what your thoughts were for which magnesium helps heart and circulation the most…thanks!

  15. Ken

    Hi: I’m 67 and in pretty good shape, but have been diagnosed with a calcium score of about 145 three years ago, also have once-in-a-while palpitations, but worked out at the gym regularly for decades. Was taking magnesium oxide (400mg a day) for a couple years until researching that it’s probably the least effective of the magnesium supplements (actually it seemed to help the palpitations some). Also have upped Vitamin D3 to 4000iu (recent blood level of 40) and added K1 (1mg) and K2 (300mcg). After reading various opinions on various magnesium formulas, was wondering your thoughts on which is best for heart and circulation…thanks!

    1. Dr. Hrkal

      Hi Ken,

      Thanks for you comment. Magnesium Orotate and Magnesium taurine would be the best for heart health. Take a closer look at those in the above article. Magnesium itself will counter balance calcification and improve blood flow. Orotate and taurine provide additional benefits for heart cell function, nerve conduction and repair. The vitamin K is an excellent addition to offset calcification.

      Dr Paul Hrkal

  16. Tammy

    I suffer from chronic migraines and read an article stating to drink 700-1000mg of magnesium citrate/malate along with 4000mg of pyruvate in an 8 ounce glass of water. My question is do you have any experience of using this combination and would it make a difference if it was citrate or malate.
    Thank you

    1. Dr. Hrkal

      Hi Tammy,

      Magnesium will help you with vaso-relaxation and headaches. I am not familiar with pyruvate or the combo with magnesium. I like to use magnesium and curcumin for tension headaches but migraines are more complex. I would look at food allergies and other sources of inflammation in migraine cases.
      For magnesium I would use either citrate, malate or glycinate. They are best absorbed.

      Dr Paul Hrkal

  17. Tammy Philipp

    Thank you

  18. Jeanenne

    I have Essential Tremors – it mostly affects my hands. Is there a form of magnesium that might help? I’m otherwise in good health, am 79 years old, take no medications but do take supplements.

    1. Dr. Hrkal

      Hi Jeanenne,

      Thanks for the question. For essential tremor there has been no studies with magnesium. Theoretically it may help with muscle spasms but I don’t think we have any evidence to say it will help with essential tremor.

      There is a lot of evidence supporting the benefit of magnesium (muscle function, bowel regularity, etc.) so you would still benefit from taking a formula like magnesium glycinate or magnesium malate.

      I hope that helps
      Paul Hrkal ND

  19. Jeanenne

    Thank you so much for your prompt reply. We have been taking two or three different forms of Magnesium (one kind at a time) but have run out and wanted a recommendation as to which form to take. I have been unable to find any supplement that lessens the effects of ETs but am planning on starting on a highly alkaline diet as that is what helped me in 2008 when I had PMR. (That and prayer)

  20. Beth

    Hello I am 39 years old, female. I have heart palpitations and chronic upper back pain. Which kind of magnesium do you recommend? the cardiologist had prescribed me magnesium oxide but if another kind will help me more than I would rather try it. Can I take two kinds at the same time the one for the heart and the one for the muscle function? What is the recommended dose?

    Thank you for your help

    1. Dr. Hrkal


      There is a lot of evidence supporting the benefit of magnesium (muscle function, heart function, bowel regularity, etc.) so you would still benefit from taking a formula like magnesium glycinate or magnesium malate that have been specifically studied for the muscle function. Magnesium orotate or taurine has been studied with heart function. I have included 2 links below to some information that will be helpful.

      I do think that whatever type of magnesium you choose (outside of mag oxide which is poorly absorbed) will be helpful for both situations.

      I hope that helps
      Paul Hrkal ND

  21. Andrea

    I have adrenal fatigue and the dreaded sleeplessness that comes along with it. Which form of magnesium would help? Thanks!

    1. Dr. Hrkal

      Hi Andrea,

      In this case you want a well absorbed magnesium to replete levels that were lost during stressful periods. Any type other than magnesium oxide is well absorbed. I would also consider magnesium glycinate for its calming effects before bed for insomnia.

      Good luck
      Dr Paul Hrkal ND

  22. Linda Powers

    I have heard that magnesium does not absorb well with fluoride taken either ingested, or transdermal as in soaking in it. Could you verify this information?

    1. Dr. Hrkal

      Hi Linda,

      This is a very interesting question. There actually is fair amount of research showing that fluoride prevents the absorption magnesium in the intestines. The fluoride ion itself can inhibit the activity of magnesium in enzyme processes throughout the body. This reduces bone formation, vascular relaxation and energy production. It is safe to conclude that fluoride should be avoided and ingesting high levels may counteract the beneficial effects of magnesium. This doesn’t mean you avoid magnesium supplementation. If fact, if you drink fluoridated water you should increase your magnesium levels to offset the negative effects. This webpage has a summary and list of reference that you will find helpful.

      Dr Paul Hrkal ND

  23. Kathy slick

    My product of magnesium citrate does not carry a recommended correct daily dosage. Natural Fractors. Canada is the name of this fine white powder. Please be specific as I find this subject very confusing. 78years old.

    1. Dr. Hrkal

      Hi Kathy,

      I don’t know the specific dosage of the magnesium you are referring to but it should say on the label. The goal is to get 100mg 2-3 times daily. Take as many caps as you need to achieve that dose. If you get loose stools then reduce the dose by half.

      I hope that helps
      Dr Paul Hrkal

  24. Ooy

    I have numbness on the tip of my big toes. Have been taking Vitamin B12 for that and was diagnosed magnesium deficiency. Could you please recommend what type of magnesium i should take for the numbness. Thank you in advance.

    1. Dr. Hrkal

      Ho Ooy,

      While there is no type of magnesium studied specifically for nerve pain magnesium glycinate or taurine are great options for nerve issues since they have good absorption and both glycine and taurine are calming neuro-signalling molecules. Also consider other reasons why you could be having numbness in your toes. Diabetes and nerve entrapment can cause numbness in your toes.

      Good luck

      Paul Hrkal ND

  25. Michelle

    I have a 12-year-old son who has asthma, food allergies, and is also ADD. I have read that kids with these problems lack magnesium. I’m not sure which type of magnesium would be best and how much to give.

    1. Dr. Hrkal

      Hi Michelle,

      Unfortunately we can’t give recommendations for patients on dosage. I would follow the label on the bottle. I can say that there is clinical research showing magnesium is useful in ADD cases and they used a citrate form. Consider a well absorbed form of magnesium like mag glycinate that also has calming effects.

      I hope that helps

      Dr Paul Hrkal ND

  26. Anna

    It looks like I could benefit from different forms of Mg . Would it be smart take different forms of it either daily at the same time or alternate different ones each day ? I have heard from others that diff Mag forms have different applications so you can’t take them at once . Is it true ? If yes, so then what best time to take each of form during the day ? Thank you for taking time answering all our questions ! I found this site very informative ( I am a holistic health practitioner ) !

    1. Dr. Hrkal

      Hi Anna, you are right that different forms have unique benefits but the focus should still be on an absorbable form of magnesium. I suggest taking 1 type for 1-2 months and then switching to another form. There is no benefit to switching forms daily.

      Thanks for you question

      Dr Paul Hrkal ND

  27. Ooy

    Thank you very much for your prompt reply. I have diabetes checked and the result was ok, but have to keep close look on that. I had never heard about nerve entrapment. Will find out more about it and consult with my doctor. Thank you.

  28. Toni

    Doctor Hrkal,
    December 8, 2014

    My husband has a lot of issues from RLS to calcification of the aorta. He was told by his doctor to take magnesium. At first he was on magnesium chloride but has since switched to magnesium glycinate. I was concerned until I read your article.One question, I would like to know if he should be taking calcium, D and K2 with the magnesium in order for it to absorb properly and be of value?
    Thank you,

    1. Dr. Hrkal

      Hi Toni,

      If any cases of calcification vitamin K should be used. Studies have shown it reduces and prevents calcification of soft tissue like blood vessels.
      However, to answer your question, Vitamin D, K, or calcium are not needed for the optimal absorption of magnesium. Mag is absorbed better when taken away from food and other minerals since they compete for absorption and require stomach acid to be broken down.

      I hope that helps

      Dr Paul Hrkal ND

  29. Lisa


    I have a 3 y/o son who is autistic. He currently takes Mag Glycinate 100mg bid. He deals with constipation regularly. Would it be too much Mag to give occ Mag Citrate?

    Thank you,

    1. Dr. Hrkal

      Hi Lisa,

      You don’t need to switch magnesium but just very gradually increase the dose of mag glycinate until your son’s stools become more loose. To directly answer your question, there is no harm occasionally adding mag citrate if you desire.

      Paul Hrkal ND

  30. fenty

    Hi Dr Hrkal,
    Can someone have sleep apnea (on CPAP machine for pretty long) consuming magnesium glycinate ? Since mg glycinate will help muscle to relax while sleep apnea person has too relax muscle around the throat that blocking the air, it seems making it worst? If it is okay which magnesium is the best? And what is the correct dose to start? Thanks so much.

    1. Dr. Hrkal

      Hi Fenty,

      Magnesium’s action is not that is will relax muscle so much that it affects breathing. Its more correct to picture when there is enough magnesium the muscle functions normally, which includes proper contraction and relaxation. Mag glycinate should not adversely affect breathing or sleeping. A well absorbed form of magnesium (like glycinate) is a good form to take to restore proper levels. There is no correct dose because it varies depending on the person and health concern. I typically tell people to follow the label dosage which usually ends up being 200-300mg daily.

      Dr Paul Hrkal

  31. fenty

    Thanks Dr Hrkal,
    Pls help me with my last question; for the best sleep aid should i go for mag glycinate or mag bisglycinate?

    1. Dr. Hrkal

      Hi fenty,

      Either one is fine. The bisglycinate is just 2 glycine molecules. Both work well for sleep.

      Dr Hrkal

  32. Heather

    You said Mag glycinate was calming, do you know why when I take it it makes me anxious? Also when I take Potassium it gives me chest tightness and pain? Thanks

    1. Dr. Hrkal

      Hi Heather,

      Some people have this “opposite” effect to magnesium. We don’t know exactly why it happens but my theory is that since magnesium increases energy production at the level of the mitochondria some people could be overstimulated by this. The same is true for its affect on the brain. Mag is needed in the formation of excitatory neurotrasmitters so you may be pushing these pathways with extra mag. I would suggest trying to support the brain pathways with a B-complex. Its might make the magnesium less excitatory if other co-factors are present.

      here is study that supports this theory

      I hope that helps

      Dr Paul Hrkal

  33. dju

    Lots of good info here. So I have a vitamin D/magnesium question. Recently increased my vitamin D3 to 10,000 units/day after latest blood test came back still low after taking 6,000 units D3/day. At the same time I stwitched from magnesium citrate to magnetic glycinate due to intestinal issues. No intestinal issues, but getting that anxiety and jittery feeling again. Wondering if the high dose if D3 is draining my magnesium or if the switch to 800 mg magnesium glycinate/day isn’t maintaining my magnesium level like magnesium citrate did. My intestinal problems seem better though.

    1. Dr. Hrkal

      Hi Dju,

      Its tough to say exactly what is causing the jittery feeling again but it may be the glycinate component. Even though it is calming for most people it can have the opposite effect for a few. I would try switching to one of the other magnesiums (like malate) to see if you still feel that way. Malate is well absorbed as well. Another option is to reduce the dose of magnesium glycinate to 400mg daily. The vitamin D will not have an effect on the magnesium but it could increase your calcium levels.

      Dr Hrkal

  34. Zenie Ed

    I took mag glycinate for a few months at a low dose 3x a week. It was good but it aggravated my insomnia. What mag supplement do you recommend? I’ve got adrenal fatigue. Thanks

    1. Dr. Hrkal

      Hi Zenie Ed,

      Some people have this “opposite” effect to magnesium. We don’t know exactly why it happens but one possible explanation is magnesium is needed in the formation of excitatory neurotrasmitters so you may be pushing these pathways with extra mag. I would suggest trying to support the brain pathways with a B-complex. Its might make the magnesium less excitatory if other co-factors are present. Also another type of magnesium, like mag malate or citrate could not have the same effect on the brain.

      here is study that supports this theory

      I hope that helps,
      Dr Paul Hrkal

  35. Erin

    Hi. I recently was diagnosed with hyperparathyroidism and underwent a parathyroidectomy and thyroid lobectomy (it was intrathyroidal) 6weeks ago. I am in the process of determining the damage with doctors but it appears I have had it for at least 10 years. I have suffered from back pain, kidney stones/infection, fatigue, apathy, heart palpitations, Lown Ganong Levine Syndrome, extra clotting (no DVT), and hand numbness. Since surgery, many things have improved but I am now getting muscle spasms often, palpitations have increased, and daily numbness in my arms, hands, legs and feet that lingers for up to an hour. My labs indicate low vitD and low-normal calcium, normal PTH. I am currently taking 100% RDA calcium, 4000 IU D3, 100% RDA K2. Should I request to be tested for Mg deficiency? Do my current symptoms sound like they could be improved with Mg? Is Mg deficiency associated with HPT pre or post-op? Thank you.

    1. Dr. Hrkal

      Hi Erin,

      That sounds like a complex situation. Low or altered thyroid function could cause all those symptoms which I would suspect before I think of magnesium involvement. If you wanted to test for magnesium deficiency that I would request ionized magnesium but even this test is a poor marker of your true magnesium levels outside the blood stream. For this situation, I would suggest seeing a naturopathic doctor that will be able to answer of magnesium is a good idea for you to take. The good news is that magnesium is very well tolerated and has very little side effects.

      I hope that helps

      Dr Paul Hrkal

  36. Lisa Lansford

    Hi, I’ve been taking 1,000 mg. of Magnesium Oxide per day (500 mg. in the morning and 500 mg. in the evening) for several months and am very happy with the laxative properties (no more constipation). After reading this very informative article, I am wanting to try Magnesium Taurate and Magnesium L-Threonate for their benefits. My question is, would these two forms of Magnesium have the same beneficial effects on my digestive system as the Magnesium Oxide? I don’t want to go back to ineffective elimination.

    Thank you for your help. Lisa

    1. Dr. Hrkal

      Hi Lisa,

      Thanks for you question. There is no doubt that magnesium oxide has the most potent laxative properties but citrate also has this effect at similar doses. Any type of magnesium will have a stool loosening effect but oxide and citrate just have their effect at lower doses. I think you can try another form like mag taurine but just adjust the dose to maintain your stool function. Also once you build up your mag levels your stools should need less of a dose to regulate bowel movements.

      I hope that helps

      Dr Paul Hrkal

  37. Huni Hinrichsen

    Do any of the magnesium types counter each other? I have been taking Magnesium Citrate for a while to reduce risk of getting blocked bowel movement but a doctor is recommending me to take Magnesium Threonate for improved nerve and brain functions. I tried switching but noticed shortly that my bowel movement dropped.

    Can I take both of them right before bedtime or would you recommend sticking to either?

    Thanks Paul!

    1. Dr. Hrkal

      Hi Huni,

      There is no known interaction between the forms of magnesium. Citrate does a better job at loosening the bowels. Threonate will also loosen stools but at a higher dose since the amino acid is absorbed more readily. In my opinion you could take both together if needed.

      Dr Paul Hrkal

      1. Huni Hinrichsen

        Thank you very much!

  38. Katerina


    Hi how are you? I have a question. A few weeks ago I purchased a product called Natural Vitality Nature Calm. It is magnesium citrate that is in a powdered form which I add to my water at night to drink. I am hypothyroid and even taking my desiccated NatureThroid I still was severely constipated. The magnesium citrate works tremendously for me. I take roughly around 325 mg to 400 mg every night. The problem is my insomnia is still there. I used to have to take prescription meds just to fall asleep. I stopped taking the prescription meds for sleeping because I don’t want to live like that and rely on a pill just to fall asleep. I drink the magnesium citrate and then a few hours later I take melatonin, but it still takes me a few hours to fall asleep. I used to have migraines almost every day, muscle spasms, and muscle twitches. After taking the magnesium citrate that has gone away. My muscles do hurt a lot though and my doctor is still running some blood test to see if this is fibromyalgia or some other autoimmune disease. I wish they made an all in one magnesium pill. I did read that magnesium glycinate is good for insomnia. Why is glycinate better for insomnia versus the citrate form? Will the glycinate also produce a laxative effect? Also, taking the citrate I cannot say that I see a huge difference in my muscle pain. My main concern is I don’t want to become constipated again changing the magnesium type. I really love the nature calm, I feel that it really works but I just can’t easily fall asleep like normal people. Can you please recommend to me what I can do and which one I should take, and how many milligrams is the safest dose for the day in which ever you recommend? Thank you very much and I look forward in hearing from you.

    1. Dr. Hrkal

      Hi Katerina,

      Thanks for your questions. Its sounds like you have a number of things you are still trying to figure out. Unfortunately, I can’t make treatment or diagnosis recommendations in this post but I can answer some of your questions.
      1) Mag glycinate can be better for sleep since the amino acid glycine has an added calming effect in the brain that complements magnesium. Glycine is a calming neurotransmitter.
      2) Mag glycinate can also keep your stools regular but since its absorbed better than citrate you may need to take more to get the same effect.
      3) A common dosage for mag glycinate is 200-400mg daily in divided doses.

      Note: Mineral supplements can interact with your thyroid meds so be sure to take them at different times of the day.

      I would suggest you consult a Naturopathic doctor to help identify some root causes of the insomnia and muscle pain. There are number of effective things that can be done for fibro and lo.

      I hope that helps

      Dr Paul Hrkal

  39. Joe

    Hello Dr Hrkal,

    My wife and I use mag daily and love it. We always opt for a chelate form. My wife is now 20 weeks pregnant. I have heard that Mag L-Theronate taken before bed can help with better sleep and cognition due to it’s ability to pass the blood brain barrier so quickly. Pregnany has caused some sleepless/anxious nights for my wife. I know most chelates are safe and are often recommended to help with muscle health and calcium absorption in pregnancy. Would there be any reason why Mag L-Theronate would be ill advised in pregnancy?


    1. Dr. Hrkal

      Hi Joe,

      Thanks for your question. You are correct that most chelates are safe however since Mag L-theronate is still a very new ingredient we don’t have much human safe data on it however it has been granted GRAS (generally recognized as safe) status by the FDA so I am confident in its safety for all ages. As an FYI, L-theronine is a metabolite of vitamin C which is definitely safe in pregnancy in low doses.

      Here the link

      I hope that helps
      Dr Paul Hrkal

  40. Xena

    I have 3 questions

    1) I am in my mid twenties and a longterm insomniac who sleeps 3 hours a day, before going to bed I suffer from high anxiety and muscle spams and restless leg syndrome which keeps me wide awake, which one would be the best to calm me down and get to sleep and how much (how many grams) shall I use to the optimum effect.

    2) is there any difference in using the magnesium oil vs the tablets and which one is better for my situation

    3) I have heard Magnesium works best when combined, there many on the market such as magnesium/calcium and Magnesium zinc again which one would be the best in my severe insomnia/ anxiety situation

    1. Dr. Hrkal

      Hi Xena,

      Thanks for the question. I can’t give you medical advise but I can answer some of your questions.
      1) Magnesium glycinate is a very relaxing form of mag that also has the benefit of glycine which is a calming amino acid. Follow the dose on the label but try taking a higher dose short term until you get loose stools and reduce from there.
      2) Oil is a topical application that can help sore muscles but its a not a good way to build up systemic levels if you deficient. Oral forms used for more than 4 months are needed.
      3) Cal/mag is a common supplement combo but we usually have enough calcium in our diets so I prefer magnesium by itself. I agree that restless legs, insomnia and muscle pain would benefit from all the minerals since they work synergistically together so I would also suggest a high potency multi (not a one a day – a good multi is at least 3 caps daily) along with your magnesium. Extra zinc could also be a good idea.

      I would suggest you see a Naturopathic doctor to help you address some roots causes of your insomnia. Somethings food sensitivities can cause inflammation, muscle spams and even insomnia.

      I hope that helps
      Paul Hrkal ND

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Understanding Different Types of Magnesium | Dr Nibber.

“At that time, the FDA publically called the testing method invalid.7”

The media will simply not call him on his bullshit!

By Dr. Mercola

New York’s Attorney General, Eric Schneiderman, has ordered GNC, Target, Walgreens, and Wal-Mart to immediately stop selling certain herbal supplements. The products include up to seven varieties — ginkgo biloba, St. John’s wort, ginseng, garlic, echinacea, saw palmetto, and valerian root – that reportedly were mislabeled or contained adulterated content.

While the products have already been pulled from shelves amidst what the Attorney General’s (AG) office called an “outrageous degree of adulteration,” there is a problem.

The test used to deem the herbal products adulterated is considered inadequate and unproven by experts, such that the results cannot be considered valid. I’m all for transparency and truth in labeling, but these supplements have been wrongfully targeted in what appears to be a carefully orchestrated attack or a horribly incompetent attempt to protect consumers.

This goes far beyond just damaging the reputation of businesses and products, class-action lawsuits are already underway, which could leave the NY Attorney General in a very vulnerable position with a lot of explaining to do.

Fewer Than Half of Supplements Tested Contained Ingredients Indicated on the Label, AG Study Claims

The study, which was commissioned by New York’s Attorney General, found that only 4 percent to 41 percent of the products tested contained DNA from the plant species listed on the label.

Some of the products contained none of the ingredient while others reportedly contained DNA from other plants.1 The products were tested up to five times each using a DNA barcoding technique, which is at the heart of the controversy over the results.

The AG’s office is requiring the companies to provide detailed information about the product manufacturers, evidence of analytical testing, detailed cGMP [current good manufacturing practice] procedures, and any adverse events reported, but to date the details of the AG’s study are unclear. The AG’s office has not released full study protocols or reports of analytical data.2 As Forbes reported:3

“[American Botanical Council chief science officer, Stefan Gafner, PhD], who also serves as technical director for the ABC-AHPA-NCNPR Botanical Adulterants Program, expressed surprise that the AG would issue such aggressive actions against major U.S. companies with just one round of research results from one investigator’s laboratory.

More detailed and published investigations by other researchers particularly with ginkgo products, seem to diverge from the results with the chain store product brands in New York.

‘At this moment, we have not seen any of the methodology details, so we can’t really comment on how well the tests were carried out, but the high percentage of supplements that did not contain the material indicated on the label definitely should make the investigators wonder just how accurate this approach is.'”

DNA Testing Is Unable to Identify Ingredients in Many Herbal Supplements

The AG’s investigation used DNA testing, which, according to The American Herbal Products Association (AHPA), is an “inadequate and unproven analytical method to test herbal supplement products.”

Not only is DNA barcoding an emerging technology that is seen by many in the scientific community as one that might one day play a complementary role in testing, but it has serious limitations when it comes to testing herbal supplements.

Namely, many herbal supplements contain herbal extracts, which have a loss or denaturation of DNA material during processing. The DNA barcoding test cannot, therefore, identify the ingredients accurately. AHPA President Michael McGuffin said:4

It appears that many, if not all, of the products the New York State Attorney General tested contained herbal extracts and this processing would likely disrupt or destroy the DNA…

If an herbal product manufacturer used this analysis, without any additional confirmation, to prove that an herbal extract is accurately identified, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) would almost certainly dismiss this as inadequate to verify identity.”

In fact, in 2013, the New York Times5 reported on a similar study using DNA barcoding, which also found a sizable number of products tested did not include the product on the label.6 At that time, the FDA publically called the testing method invalid.7

While the FDA has used DNA barcoding to reveal some cases of fraud, such as that in mislabeled seafood, it does not use it for testing herbal supplements. Apparently, the reporter who wrote the 2013 New York Times story, Anahad O’Connor, was called by an AG prosecutor.

As NewHope360 reported,8 the author noted in a blog that the prosecutor “had read my article in the Times and was outraged that companies selling health products engaged in such large-scale fraud.”

Later in the blog, O’Connor writes: ‘I had no idea that the article had made an impression on law enforcement officials too – and I’m glad that they used their resources to root out what appeared to be a blatant case of consumer fraud.’

So it appears the New York Attorney General launched an investigation patterned after the one in 2013, even though the FDA already called the data invalid. Adding to the curiosity, NewHope360 reported:9

“[Frank Lampe, vice president for communications at the United Natural Products Alliance] said he wonders why those resources did not include a call to the FDA and why they appear to have used the Times story as a road map in their investigation. ‘It’s the question for the [New York] Attorney General: What motivated this?’ he said.”

This appears to be far more a case of politics and policy than one of public protection… the Attorney General even incorporated the views of legislators into his news release!

In response, the United Natural Products Alliance is collecting “large quantities” of the supplements cited in the Attorney General’s investigation and submitting them to certified botanical testing labs for analysis.

According to ABC News:10

“‘They will perform universally accepted methods and procedures to test the products and will independently report their findings, which will be made public,’ said Loren Israelsen, the group’s president. ‘We feel the most appropriate response to bad science is good science.'”

GNC Tests Show Products are Pure, Properly Labeled

GNC refuted the claims made by the New York State Attorney General and submitted both original test results and results of re-tests as evidence of purity and proper labeling of the supplements in question. It looks like Eric Schneiderman may soon be eating some crow, as the tests came back clean. NewHope360 reported:11

The retesting results clearly and conclusively demonstrate that the Company’s products are pure, properly labeled and in full compliance with all regulatory requirements.

…In performing its tests, GNC used only validated, widely used and generally accepted testing methodologies approved by standard setting bodies, including the United States Pharmacopeia, Association of Agricultural Chemists, British Pharmacopeia and European Pharmacopeia.

These are the non-profit scientific organizations that set standards for the identity, strength, quality, and purity of medicines, food ingredients, and dietary supplements manufactured, distributed and consumed worldwide.”

The re-test results were even reviewed by Robert Fish, who is described as an expert on FDA good manufacturing. He, too, confirmed their authenticity, stating:12

“…the products at issue were each manufactured in compliance with federal FDA requirements … the products contain the ingredients stated on the labels at the levels indicated on the labels … the products are not contaminated, and … the products are therefore not adulterated.”

Supplements Are Already Tightly Regulated

Pro-pharmaceutical spokesmen like Dr. Paul Offit and US Senator Dick Durbin have repeatedly stated that dietary supplements are unregulated and need stricter oversight due to the hazards they pose to your health. This is patently false, and you only have to look at the very first sentence on the Food and Drug Administration’s (FDA) website to settle that dispute.13 There, it plainly states:

“FDA regulates both finished dietary supplement products and dietary ingredients. FDA regulates dietary supplements under a different set of regulations than those covering ‘conventional’ foods and drug products. Under the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act of 1994 (DSHEA):

  • The manufacturer of a dietary supplement or dietary ingredient is responsible for ensuring that the product is safe before it is marketed.
  • FDA is responsible for taking action against any unsafe dietary supplement product after it reaches the market.”

Back in the early 1990s, the FDA threatened the availability of dietary supplements to the point that consumers staged a massive revolt, which resulted in the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act of 1994 (DSHEA). The law specifically protects your access to dietary supplements by classifying them as foods, not food additives or drugs, and it grandfathered in dietary supplements that were already in use as of 1994. Only novel ingredients introduced after October 15, 1994 are required to seek FDA approval, but the FDA can, and has, shut down supplement makers that do not meet these regulations.

This Isn’t a Matter of Safety…

An estimated 106,000 hospitalized patients die each year from drugs that, by medical standards, are properly prescribed and administered, and two million more suffer serious side effects. How does the safety of supplements compare?

  • In 2001, 84.6 percent of all substances implicated in fatal poisonings were pharmaceutical drugs, according to that year’s American Association of Poison Control Centers (AAPCC) report. This compares with 0.8 percent for all dietary supplements combined, even including substances such as dinitrophenol, a dangerous (and illegal) substance banned in 1938, as well as the central nervous system stimulant Ma Huang (Ephedra). ONE drug alone, the anti-asthma drug theophylline, which was responsible for 15 deaths that year, amounted to 66 percent more than all the available dietary supplements combined.
  • According to CDC mortality data for 2005, prescription drugs killed more than 33,500 people that year, second only to car accidents. That same year, the American Association of Poison Control Centers reported 27 deaths that were associated with dietary supplements (one of which was reportedly due to Ephedra; the herbal supplement banned the year before for being too dangerous. In 2005, low-dose Ephedra was also subsequently banned).
  • In 2011, it was reported that there are more than 487 times more adverse event reports for FDA-approved prescription drugs than there are for supplements, and 409 times more serious events for drugs than supplements.14

New York State Has a History of Anti-Supplement Legislation

In 2013, the New York State legislature revealed two bills that showed anti-supplement bias. The first, S3650, would create a system for reporting adverse events related to supplements (even though the FDA already collects them), and give the health commissioner the authority to ban supplements based on any risk they deemed to be “harmful.” The Alliance for Natural Health reported:15

This would undermine the hard-won national regulatory system for supplements under DSHEA, the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act of 1994—which was enacted to encourage access to nutritional supplements. Creating a ‘negative’ list of supplements at the state level directly contradicts the process outlined by DSHEA and brings us one step closer to a system of approved vs. non-approved supplements.

Remember, supplements aren’t allowed to state their full therapeutic benefits lest they be considered a drug by the FDA. Since it is illegal for producers to cite benefits in any but the most vague terms, the analysis will necessarily be one-sided, and any risk, no matter how tiny, may be deemed sufficient to have the supplement banned. Note that the same rule isn’t applied to OTC drugs like acetaminophen, which every year is responsible for 100,000 calls to poison control centers, 56,000 emergency room visits, 26,000 hospitalizations, and more than 450 deaths from liver failure.”

The second bill, A.4700, would require sports supplement manufacturers and distributors to hand out pamphlets describing whether the product had been banned by sports leagues and whether there were negative adverse effects or known herb-drug interactions. However, the bill excludes supplements in liquid form and those that contain caffeine, which means those supplements that are sometimes deemed risky, like energy “shots,” would not be included.

Perhaps the NY Attorney General will reap what he has sowed, and end up paying the price for putting political motivations ahead of prioritizing real health issues facing citizens of his state.  The New Yorker may have shot a fatal blow at his job security in a piece titled, “How Not to Test a Dietary Supplement.

If you’d like to tell New York legislators to oppose these anti-supplement bills and question the lack of basic knowledge displayed by the NY Attorney General, you can do so here.

Transparency Is Important, But Integrity Is Required

Recalls for supplements attract attacks from those who would prefer to eliminate the supplement industry, as it’s seen as a threat to pharmaceuticals. But it’s not a fair game when the supplements are recalled due to no fault of their own, but rather due to flawed and inadequate testing. Then it’s a witch-hunt. The supplement industry would do well to be as transparent as possible in every aspect of their manufacturing.

There are certainly plenty of shady characters in every industry, and illegal acts occur across the board – including the supplement industry.   But there is a difference between compliance and enforcement, the fact that illegal supplements exist is not because more regulations are necessary when current regulations are not enforced.

From now on, my own products will have videos explaining the formulation and manufacturing processes used, and include video walk-throughs of the plant where my products are made. Below are two such videos. The first shows the RFI manufacturing facility, where many of my nutritional supplements are made. The second explains the Licaps (liquid capsule) technology, and why I’ve chosen this particular technology for my liquid supplements.

via NY Attorney General to Wipe Herbal Supplements from Shelves.

NASA satellite image shows the frozen wasteland that currently is the United States | The Verge


NASA satellite image shows the frozen wasteland that currently is the United States | The Verge.

How New England and Boston’s Snow Measures Up In The Record Books

Jon Erdman
Published: February 22, 2015

An over three-week snow siege has buried parts of New England with feet of snow.

You may wonder if this extended snowy blitz is setting records. Below, we have a rundown of heaviest snowstorm, snowiest month and season lists for the hardest hit parts of New England. Click on each bolded city link for the latest forecast.


Winter Storms Juno and Marcus each made the top 10 heaviest Boston snowstorms, all-time.

1. Feb. 17-18, 2003: 27.6 inches
2. Feb. 6-7, 1978: 27.1 inches
3. Feb. 24-26, 1969: 25.8 inches
4. Mar. 31 – Apr. 1, 1997: 25.4 inches
5. Feb. 8-9, 2013 (Nemo): 24.9 inches
6. Jan. 26-28, 2015 (Juno): 24.6 inches
7. Feb. 7-10, 2015 (Marcus): 23.8 inches

8. Jan. 22-23, 2005: 22.5 inches
9. Jan. 20-21, 1978: 21.4 inches
10. Mar. 3-5, 1960: 19.8 inches

In just over two years, we’ve had three of the top seven heaviest snowstorms in Boston.

February has obliterated the previous snowiest month on record in Boston.

1. February 2015: 62.6 inches
2. January 2005: 43.3 inches
3. January 1945: 42.3 inches
4. February 2003: 41.6 inches
5. February 1969: 41.3 inches

For perspective, the average seasonal snowfall at Logan Airport is 43.5 inches.

Speaking of seasonal snowfall, 2014-2015 is now the second snowiest season on record. In the last 21 years, Boston has now had 4 of its top 5 snowiest seasons.

1. 1995-1996: 107.6 inches
2. 2014-2015: 99.8 inches
3. 1993-1994: 96.3 inches
4. 1947-1948: 89.2 inches
5. 2004-2005: 86.6 inches
6. 1977-1978: 85.1 inches
7. 1992-1993: 83.9 inches
8. 2010-2011: 81.0 inches
9. 1915-1916: 79.2 inches
10. 1919-1920: 73.4 inches

Other records Boston has set during this stretch include:

– Record 30-day snowfall: 90.8 inches from Jan. 19- Feb. 17, 2015, inclusive (previous record: 58.8 inches from Jan. 9 – Feb. 7, 1978). Incredibly, this 30-day total would be the third snowiest season!

– Record snow depth*: 37 inches on Feb. 9 (previous record: 31 inches on Jan. 11, 1996; * gaps in this dataset exist)

– Fastest six-foot snowfall: 72.5 inches in 18 days from Jan. 24 – Feb. 10, 2015 (previous record: 73 inches in 45 days from Dec. 29, 1993 to Feb. 11, 1994)

– Fastest 90-inch snowfall: 23 days from Jan. 24 – Feb. 15, 2015 (previous record: 78 days from Dec. 30, 1993 to Mar. 17, 1994)

– Four calendar days with at least 12 inches of snow, a first for any snow season (previously, only two seasons had as many as two such days, in 1977-1978 and 1960-1961 seasons)

– At least 0.5 inch of snow had fallen 6 straight days through Feb. 12, topping the previous such record stretch of 5 days in 1943. The record stretch of measurable snow (at least 0.1 inch) was 9 straight days ending on Mar. 10, 1916.

– Finally, the Blue Hill Observatory in Milton, Massachusetts set an all-time snow depth record on the morning of February 15.

Worcester, Massachusetts

(Caveat: Except for the April Fools’ snowstorm in 1997, there is a gap in the period of record from 1997-2002)

Winter Storm Juno in late January set a snowstorm record for Worcester.

1. Jan. 26-27, 2015 (Juno): 34.5 inches
2. Mar. 31 – Apr. 1, 1997 (April Fools): 33.0 inches
3. Dec. 11-12, 1992: 32.1 inches
4. Feb. 8-9, 2013 (Nemo): 28.7 inches
5. Feb. 14-16, 1962: 24.8 inches

February 2015 is now their snowiest month, all-time. Incredibly, they’ve had 2 of their top 5 snowiest months back-to-back (highlighted below):

1. February 2015: 52.5 inches
2. January 2005: 50.9 inches
3. January 2011: 48.4 inches
4. January 1987: 46.8 inches
5. January 2015: 46.5 inches

Worcester has now chalked up a top 10 snowiest season.

1. 1995-1996: 132.9 inches
2. 1992-1993: 120.1 inches
3. 2004-2005: 114.3 inches
4. 2002-2003: 111.8 inches
5. 2014-2015: 107.7 inches
6. 2012-2013: 108.9 inches
7. 1960-1961: 104.3 inches
8. 1993-1994: 100.2 inches
9. 1971-1972: 99.3 inches
10. 1957-1958: 97.5 inches

Portland, Maine

Winter Storm Juno in late January was a top-five snowstorm for Portland.

1. Feb. 8-9, 2013 (Nemo): 31.9 inches
2. Jan. 17-18, 1979: 27.1 inches
3. Feb. 17-18, 1952: 25.3 inches
4. Jan. 27-28, 2015 (Juno): 23.8 inches
5. Jan. 23-24, 1935: 23.3 inches

Portland needs just over 18 inches of snow to reach their fifth snowiest month (50.9 inches in Feb. 1893). They also need 15.8 inches to reach their 10th snowiest season (103 inches).

Bangor, Maine

Bangor needs just over 9 inches of snow to reach their top five snowiest months.

1. February 1969: 58 inches
2. January 1966: 48.4 inches
3. December 1962: 47.5 inches
4. January 1987: 46.7 inches
5. December 2007: 42.3 inches

January 2015 just missed the top five, with 41.8 inches.

Bangor vaulted into their top five snowiest seasons on February 19.

1. 1962-1963: 181.9 inches
2. 1970-1971: 119.7 inches
3. 2010-2011: 115.1 inches
4. 1968-1969: 114.4 inches
5. 2014-2015: 107.8 inches

Bangor may near its all-time record snow depth (snow that’s on the ground at any one time) of 53 inches from Feb. 27 – Mar. 1, 1969.

Bangor and other Downeast Maine locations set several 7-to-10 day snowstorm records from late January to early February.

(MORE: Full writeup from NWS-Caribou, Maine)

One of those Downeast Maine locations, Eastport, has picked up over 9 feet (109 inches) of snow since January 25.


How New England and Boston’s Snow Measures Up In The Record Books | Weather Underground.

Abolish marriage. For everyone. Problem solved.

Sometimes wisdom comes from the unlikeliest of places. Sometimes from under a rock, sometimes from a rancid pile of rotting asparagus, sometimes from deep in the turgid backwaters of vicious, Southern-bred homophobia.

And sometimes, in the case of Alabama Supreme Court justice Glenn Murdoch, it just might be all three.

Alabama, you see, recently became the 37th state to legalize gay marriage. And, being Alabama, it was none too happy about it, either.

But amidst the madhouse jumble of legal wrangling that forced this most homophobic of flyover states to treat all couples the same regardless of sexual orientation, Justice Murdoch had a rather startling legal epiphany.

In short (and legal experts can correct me if I’m not reading this exactly right), Murdoch noticed a potential loophole in the marriage statute just big enough to drive a truck full of hate straight through. He noted that, technically speaking, there’s actually two ways for his state to meet its legal obligation to treat all couples the same: The first, of course, is to let them all marry, sans bigotry or discrimination. This is, it seems obvious, the only fair, reasonable and compassionate thing to do.

The other way, of course, is to allow no one to get married – not heteros, not homosexuals, no one at all. Because if Alabama had known, when it first allowed marriage in the state in the first place, that gays would have to be included, it might never have let it happen. They might have blocked everyone. And they still can.

Isn’t that something? In other words, Murdoch realized it’s theoretically possible to completely abolish marriage altogether in Alabama, as a (particularly cruel) way to prevent those damnable gays from destroying the fabric of modern society – sure to begin any second now – and still meet the equality mandate.

Maybe it will be more like this. All nude couplings, all the time. You think?

Maybe it will be more like this. All nude couplings, all the time. You think?

It’s sort of brilliant, no? In its heartless tyranny, its loathing of fundamental human dignity? And life? And love?

It’s not going to happen, of course. It’s just a curious potential snag, one that, at worst, could be used to bash Alabama’s gay couples a little longer.

But wait just a second. Let us examine Murdoch’s heart-punch of an idea a little closer. Because it just might be that this man’s tortured legal mind has unwittingly coughed up a rather astonishing solution, not merely to end America’s gender-riffic culture wars once and for all, but also to transform the deeply flawed, eternally broken institution of marriage itself.

Abolish marriage entirely! Can you imagine it? If it went, say, nationwide? If we really took it seriously? At least, as a thought experiment?

No more stigma around one’s marriage status, no more 50-percent divorce rate, no more married people going without sex for months on end, no more slogging it out in a loveless marriage for the sake of the kids, no more getting married and letting yourself go and putting on 75 pounds because, you know, screw it.

No more cheesy wedding industry. No more wedding DJs. No more divorce lawyers. No more Bridezillas. No more Say Yes to the Dress. And so on, ad nauseam. And of course, no more marriages that actually work beautifully, full of love, home, stability, family.

But above all, no more deceiving ourselves that we are what we’ve been so heavily programmed to believe we are: a monogamous, mate-for-life organism that thrives best when forcibly paired for multiple decades, often very unhappily. Wait, are we? See what a grand experiment it would be?

Let us imagine: Marriage is hereby abolished. What do you think might happen? Would we immediately invent new modes and definitions of intimacy, coupling and commitment, along with new rituals and ceremonies to honor them, and to hell with the church’s scowling dogma that screwed it all up in the first place?

Abolishing marriage means abolishing all religious-fueled bickering about it. Well, maybe.

Abolishing marriage means abolishing all religious-fueled bickering about it. Well, maybe.

Or would we, instead, run scattershot to the winds, naked and thrumming, experimenting with every polyamorous, threesome, communal structure we can come up with? Would it be chaos? Would it be amazing? Would we copy Mexico City’s idea, from a few years back, for “renewable” marriage contracts lasting two, three or five years each, and then you’re free to go?

Perhaps you think it all sounds far too cruel, too disruptive, to dissolve marriage as we know it. You might be right.

But I don’t think so. I think it might be all kinds of beautiful to see the human animal redefine love, commitment and family as we really feel and experience them, without the normal codes, constrictions and regulations, nearly all of which were invented by organized religion to further control society and tame the fiery human heart, and shame it when it fails.

One thing we know: Marriage has a shockingly high failure rate. Few actually believe it’s what we were “designed” to do, that it’s somehow encoded in our DNA. It’s just something we made up. It sometimes works. It often doesn’t. We know it can be stunningly beautiful and deeply felt. We know it can be ruthless, spiteful and heartbreaking.

What we don’t know is, what would we be like without it?

Abolish marriage. For everyone. Problem solved. – Notes & Errata by Mark Morford.

Luke Ruehlman is a healthy 5-year-old boy. Still, he’s already had a lifetime of experiences — he has even died!

At least, that’s what he claims. In a bizarre series of TV interviews, Ruehlman has managed to convince at least a few people that he lived a past life as Pam Robinson, an African-American Chicago woman who died in a fire at the Paxton Hotel in 1993.


Luke Ruehlman

Ruehlman started weirding out his stay-at-home mom, Erica, at the age of 2, when he started talking about a mystery woman named Pam. Later, she would ask him directly who the heck Pam was.

“He turned to me and said, ‘Well, I was,'” she told Fox 8 (video above). “[He said] ‘Well, I used to be, but I died and I went up to heaven. I saw God and then eventually, God pushed me back down and I was a baby and you named me Luke.'”

pam robinson

Pam Robinson died in her 30s in a Chicago hotel fire.

Ruehlman also reportedly said he traveled by train in Chicago. The Cincinnati family didn’t know anyone named Pam, and Luke had never been to the Windy City. His mom was baffled. She investigated further and found Pam Robinson, who was one of 19 people who died in a 1993 hotel fire.

Robinson’s family declined to comment on the story.

The boy’s odd ability to remember places he’s never been is intriguing, to be sure. If this sounds amazing, it’s not that unusual on the show that revealed this story, Lifetime’s “Ghost Inside My Child” — and the last time we checked up on one of the show’s reports, it was a mess.

In an episode just a few months ago, a Virginia family’s reincarnation story drew skepticism almost immediately after it aired.

Andrew Lucas, 4, of Virginia Beach, claimed he was a reincarnated Marine, and his stories seemed to match up with the death of a U.S. Marine who reportedly died in a bombing in Beirut, in 1983.

But facts have a habit of getting in the way of good stories. Not only could show producers not find the family of the dead Marine — leaving questions about the Marine’s very existence on the table — but a reporter who interviewed Lucas’ family told HuffPost Weird News that producers helped Lucas’ mom make the whole thing up. Publicists have denied that tidbit, as publicists would.

Do inconsistencies on the show pull a rug out from under Ruehlman’s story? Not so fast, Erica told Fox 8 — this story needs to be told.

“It’s a positive one,” she said. “One of unification.”

Then Luke’s grandma told Fox 8 that Lifetime didn’t pay them anything to do the episode.

Boy, 5, Claims He Lived Past Life As Woman Who Died In Chicago Fire.

“I love you.”

It’s one of the most sought after phrases in the world. The things people will do to hear someone say, “I love you” have surprised us in countless stories, movies and songs. The things people will do for someone who loves them are equally as astounding.

Why do we love hearing, “I love you” so much? Maybe its the promise of holding a place in someone’s heart, or the awakening knowledge of a new significance you hold in someone’s life. Often it’s the phrase expressed before a relationship takes it’s next step, the expression that one is loved for all their silly quirks, for their looks, for their heart, or for who they are (the good, the bad, and the imperfection). People thrive off that idea, that they are enough, that they are someone’s everything.

We love to be loved.

So why then is love such a complicated thing? Why do people who say they love each other split? Why do marriages end? Why are love songs sometimes sad? Why do broken hearts exist? How can a person who was once your everything, become a stranger, or even an enemy?

Is it because love is ultimately bad? Or even a fleeting feeling, that only some people are lucky enough to experience forever?

I believe in love. I believe in its strength and significance in relationships. But I have also learned that love isn’t always enough. You need more than love to make a relationship work. Love starts many great romances, but love alone won’t make a relationship last forever.

There are six phrases that I think are as important, and possibly more important than “I love you.” Phrases that I think we should all hear from those we are close to. Phrases that should be as important to us as a declaration of love.

1. “I forgive you.”
I forgive you for all the things have done, or will do, that may hurt me. I forgive the way you may lash out when you are hungry, I forgive the things you may say when you’re tired after a long day. I forgive the times you didn’t even know you upset me. I forgive your big mistakes and the small ones. I forgive you for not knowing what I needed when I thought you would, or even expected you to know. I forgive you when you fall short, because I see how hard you are trying. I forgive you the way I hope you’ll forgive me because I know neither of us our perfect.

2. “I’ll sacrifice for you.”
I’ll sacrifice my time for you. I’ll be selfless for you. I’ll stay up late with you as you learn to care for our new baby, even though I have work in the morning. I’ll hold you when you’re sick. When you are weak, I will be your strength. I’ll be there for you at 3am as readily as I would at 7pm. I’ll be there when no one else is, and I’ll be there 100%. In sickness and in health, my willingness to be there won’t change. My sacrifice is not dependent on your state of being, but rather it is there because you exist and you are someone worth sacrificing for.

3. “I respect you.”
I respect you for who you are, and not for what I feel you deserve. I respect you because you deserve my respect, not because you earned it. I’ll respect your opinions and consider your feelings. I’ll treat you like a person with your own thoughts, hopes, dreams and desires. And those thoughts, hopes, dreams, and desires will matter to me the way they matter to you.

4. “I’ll support you.”
I’ll support your hopes and your dreams. I will always have your back. You can rely on me. I’ll raise you up and never tear you down. I’ll always make sure you have what you need, physically, emotionally, spiritually and mentally. I’ll lift you back up when you fall.

5. “I’ll protect you.”
I’ll protect you from harm. I’ll protect your heart from pain. I’ll protect the idea of us. I won’t demean you. I’ll treasure you and shield you from evil, bad and ugly. I won’t let others put you down. You will be safe in my arms, safe in my hands and safe in my heart. I’ll be your safe haven, your safety net, and someone you can always trust.

6. “I’m committed to you.”
I won’t leave you. I will be here for you again and again. I’ll make this work a priority in my life. I’ll look back on our beginning, I’ll work on our now and I’ll look forward to our future because we are something that I want to last forever.

Some may argue that if you love someone, all these things will be part of that love. That someone who loves you automatically sacrifices for you, respects you, forgives you, supports you, protects you and is committed to you.

In an ideal, perfect world, I truly believe that all these attributes come together as one and are expressed through pure and unconditional charity. It is a trait we should all strive to develop. But from my experience, we are human, and we fall short of this perfection — even towards those we love.

If true love was all that we needed, love wouldn’t be so hard and relationships wouldn’t fall apart so easy.

The truth is there are lot of people you can love, but very few relationships that you can make last forever. That’s why a person is capable of loving someone more than life, but knowing deep inside that it would never work. That is why people are capable of walking away from those they love. That is why someone can give up a life full of love for a single moment of weak and selfish pleasure. That is why people lie, steal and cheat to, from and on those they love.

I have loved a lot of people, but I am not with those people. I am with the man who gave me more than love. I am with the man who looked past my mistakes. I am with the man who sacrificed for me. I am with a man who honors and respects me. I am with a man who takes care of me in more ways than one. I am with someone who makes me feel safe and secure. I am with someone who I know will love me through the thick and the thin, who hasn’t left nor will leave me when time are tough.

I am with the man who was more than an “I love you.”


6 Phrases More Important Than, “I Love You” | Natasha Craig.

Do Google Adwords really work?

It is affectionately known in the industry as the Google Idiot Tax and applies to people who have set up their own account and don’t know what they are doing. Google is doing itself a disservice in this regard, as those who experience such failure are often then skeptical about the value of utilising AdWords.”

Wechsler says generally people go to the Google Search website to make a decision, but they go to the Google Display Network (for example, The Sydney Morning Herald website) or on to Facebook with no intention of making a decision. Advertisements on those platforms are an interruption to browsing behaviour and therefore need to be crafted differently.

“For example, no one goes on to to Facebook when looking to buy a new car,” she says.

“Most of the time, AdWords on the Search Network is the perfect starting point for many businesses. This is primarily because it is the perfect testing ground for people who are actively searching. You can test different headlines and marketing messaging in the ads by observing the click-through rates on different ads.

“Once people click on the ads, you can then see how well your website performs in converting visitors into leads/buyers through analytics and heat mapping.

“Once this process has been refined and optimised, we pursue other online marketing strategies, such as Facebook advertising, remarketing, as well as content marketing, which feeds in perfectly with SEO.”

This point is perhaps a key: small businesses shouldn’t rely on just one aspect of the marketing mix to promote their business. Too many small businesses are not using all the marketing tools available to them.

via Do Google Adwords really work?.

They were wrong again!

Major Shift In New Federal Dietary Guidelines Proposed.

U.S. and U.K. intelligence agencies have reportedly hacked into the computer network of giant SIM card maker Gemalto and taken smartphone encryption keys potentially used by customers of hundreds of mobile phone carriers worldwide.

The hack was detailed in a 2010 GCHQ document leaked by former NSA contractor Edward Snowden, the story said.

The Gemalto hack, by the U.S. National Security Agency and the U.K. Government Communications Headquarters (GCHQ), allowed the two spy agencies to monitor a large portion of the world’s mobile phone voice and data traffic, according to a story in The Intercept.

It’s unclear how much mobile traffic the two agencies intercepted after the reported hack.

Gemalto, based in the Netherlands, produces about 2 billion SIM cards a year. About 450 mobile carriers, including AT&T, T-Mobile, Verizon Wireless and Sprint, use the company’s SIM cards.

With the compromised encryption keys, the surveillance agencies would be able to monitor mobile communications without the approval of the carriers or foreign governments, The Intercept story said. The encryption keys would allow the agencies to intercept mobile traffic without court-ordered warrants or wiretaps, the story said.

Representatives of the NSA did not respond to requests for comment on the story. Gemalto’s website was down Thursday afternoon.

Gemalto will devote “all resources necessary” to investigate the reported compromise, the company said in a statement.

The company is “especially vigilant against malicious hackers, and of course, has detected, logged and mitigated many types of attempts over the years,” the statement continued. Gemalto “can make no link” between past attacks and the reported compromise by GCHQ and the NSA, the company said.

Gemalto was unaware of the penetration of its systems, the company told The Intercept. The company is “disturbed” about the possibility, Paul Beverly, a Gemalto executive vice president, told the publication.

GCHQ compromised Gemalto’s computer networks and installed malware on several computers, The Intercept story said, quoting a slide from the U.K. intelligence agency provided by Snowden. At the time GCHQ believed it had access to the company’s “entire network,” the slide said.

GCHQ also said it had access to billing servers of mobile carriers, allowing it to manipulate customer charges in an effort to hide surveillance on phones, the story said.

via Update: Spy agencies hacked SIM card maker’s encryption | Computerworld.

Naked jewish chicks on film?

Bernard Freundel filmed naked women who entered a sacred, intimate space of religious ritual using  the trust of every woman whose private moments he caught on camera.

Freundel initially was charged with six counts of voyeurism for videotaping six women. , but had actually positioned hidden cameras to photograph 152 naked women inside a Jewish ritual bath called a mikveh.

The U.S. Attorney’s Office reduced the number of charges to 52 so the crimes would fall within the time frame of the statute of limitations, said his lawyer, Jeffrey Harris.

via Rabbi pleads guilty to 52 voyeurism charges.

The FDA just deemed all GE Healthcare ($GE) MRIs with superconducting magnets potentially deadly by classifying the recall of nearly 13,000 of the imaging systems into the most serious Class I category. This means there is a reasonable probability that the device “will cause serious adverse health consequences or death.”

via UPDATED: GE recalls 10,000+ MRI systems after FDA deems them potentially deadly, citing poor training – FierceMedicalDevices.

Hack Education

Pay attention….

The end of the institution is not near but the beginning of the end is.

Hack Education.

California Hospital Scores – Los Angeles Times.

Superbug outbreak at UCLA: FDA warns medical scopes may spread deadly bacteria – LA Times.

Tweens and teens report getting less and less sleep with each passing year. The disturbing trend comes from data collected over the past 20 years from U.S. students.

As of 2012, more than half of the surveyed kids age 15 or older reported sleeping less than seven hours a night. That is two to three hours less sleep than doctors and others recommend. Sleep is essential, especially for young kids and teens. Too little sleep leads to poor health and poor performance in school. It also increases the risk of accidents.

The new study found consistent decreases in sleep between 1991 and 2012. The largest drops happened in the late 1990s and early 2000s. Details appeared online February 16 in the journal Pediatrics.

The study crunched data that were collected as part of a program called “Monitoring the Future.” Each year, this survey asks some 50,000 U.S. students a variety of questions about their behaviors. One of them: “How often do you get at least seven hours of sleep?” Another asks: “How often do you get less sleep than you should?”

“Overall, across 20 years and all age groups, 12 to 19, there has been a downward shift in the proportion of adolescents getting seven or more hours of sleep,” says Katherine Keyes. A co-author of the study, she works at Columbia University in New York City. As an epidemiologist, she studies the factors that can influence the health of certain populations, including teens.

Girls were less likely than boys to report getting at least seven hours of sleep, the researchers found. Students who lived in urban areas, belonged to minority groups or whose families were poor also were less likely to report getting at least that much sleep.

The biggest decrease in sleep was among 15-year-olds. Fewer than half of those surveyed in 2012 reported sleeping seven or more hours a night. That represents nearly a 20 percent decrease in nightly sleep for that age group since 1991.

Teens don’t recognize the problem

Also worrisome was the poor understanding by many teens of what is ”enough” sleep. Students from both minority groups and low-income families were less likely to get seven or more hours of sleep per night. These same students also were likely to report that they felt they were regularly getting enough sleep, the study found.

“A lot of teen-agers just don’t know what an adequate amount of sleep is. They get four hours and think they are just fine,” says Keyes. She adds that one message of the study is that kids need to learn the importance of getting a proper night’s rest.

The researchers are unsure why kids are sleeping less. Many people have blamed the rise of social media and increases in screen time. However, the steepest drops in sleep occurred in the years before Facebook and other social media sites became hugely popular.

More likely, a combination of reasons is to blame, says Daniel Glaze. He is medical director of The Children’s Sleep Center at Texas Children’s Hospital in Houston. He singles out demands put on teens by early school start times, sports, jobs —and yes, socializing. Obesity also may play some role. Obesity disrupts sleep — and teen obesity rates have risen as the length of a night’s sleep has declined.

“Clearly there are many factors we could improve and, hopefully, improve the amount of sleep,” says Glaze, who was not connected with the study.

But just educating teens to sleep more may not be enough to change their sleep behavior, report the authors of a second study. Educating local teens about the importance of sleep raised their awareness, researchers at The Chinese University of Hong Kong found. The bad news: It had no effect on how much the students actually slept. These data for Chinese youth also appeared online February 16 in Pediatrics.

Studies like these suggest that getting teens to sleep more will require tackling the root causes, Glaze says. The first study suggests places to look, he notes. For example, girls report getting less sleep than boys. He says it’s now important to ask: “What are those teen-age girls doing? Look at the factors related to specific groups.” Then, he says, it’s important to “not only educate, but address those factors.”

Keyes and her fellow researchers also found individual teens get less sleep as they grow up. The finding is significant. As of 2012, about two-thirds of 12-year-olds reported sleeping seven or more hours a night. That same year, only about one-third of 18-year-olds reported getting that much shuteye.

Power Words

(for more about Power Words, click here)

behavior  The way a person or other organism acts towards others, or conducts itself.

data  Facts and statistics collected together for analysis but not necessarily organized in a way that give them meaning. For digital information (the type stored by computers), those data typically are numbers stored in a binary code, portrayed as strings of zeros and ones.

epidemiologist  Like health detectives, these researchers figure out what causes a particular illness and how to limit its spread.

factor    Something that plays a role in a particular condition or event; a contributor.

media      (in the social sciences) A term for the ways information is delivered and shared within a society. It encompasses not only the traditional media — newspapers, magazines, radio and television — but also Internet- and smartphone-based outlets, such as blogs, Twitter, Facebook and more. The newer, digital media are sometimes referred to as social media.

shuteye  Slang for sleep

survey  (in statistics) A questionnaire that samples the opinions, practices (such as dining or sleeping habits), knowledge or skills of a broad range of people. Researchers select the number and types of people questioned in hopes that the answers these individuals give will be representative of others who are their age, belong to the same ethnic group or live in the same region.

Readability Score: 6.9


The steady creep of less sleep | Science News for Students.

Public Release: 16-Feb-2015 Marital ‘long-timers’ have a ‘modest rebound’ in sexual frequency after 50 years

The study also found that older people still in first marriages have sex more often than those who have remarried

Baylor University

While people in the early years of marriage have sex more frequently, and their sexual activity tapers off over time, a slight rebound occurs for those whose marriages endure longer than half a century, according to new research.

The study also found that people who remain in their first marriages have sex more frequently than those who remarry. But frequency aside, marriage order made no difference when it came to actual physical pleasure and emotional satisfaction, said researchers from Louisiana State University, Florida State University and Baylor University.

Their study — “Marital Characteristics and the Sexual Relationships of U.S. Older Adults: An Analysis of National Social Life, Health and Aging Project Data” — is published in the journal Archives of Sexual Behavior, the official publication of the International Academy of Sex Research.

Researchers analyzed the relationship between marital characteristics and sexual outcomes among 1,656 married adults ages 57-85, using data from the first wave of the National Social Life, Health and Aging Project. They noted that people who survive until their 50th year of marriage — among whom the slight rebound occurred — are relatively few in number.

“Additionally, the study used a snapshot in time — and therefore cannot prove that length and order of marriage caused sexual frequency,” said former Baylor researcher Samuel Stroope, Ph.D., now an assistant professor of sociology at Louisiana State University.

Nevertheless, the study provided “intriguing results” for one of the fastest growing age groups in the United States — and one whose sexual behavior rarely has been studied, he said.

One uncertainty that could be the subject of future research is the “why” of the findings. While sex becomes less of a novelty over time and frequency tends to diminish, “it may be that the permanency of the relationship contributes to sexual relations picking up a bit at the end,” Stroope said.

“Growing old as a couple, with the experience and knowledge that come with that, may play a part,” he said. “You are able to learn about your partner and build on that over time. You may have a higher level of trust when you feel that your spouse isn’t going to go anywhere. The expectation that the relationship will continue may give you more reason to invest in the relationship — including in sexual aspects of the relationship.”

As to why “remarrieds” have less frequent sex than those in first marriages, “it may be that those who have been married in the past may not have as strong of a sense of permanence or lasting investment,” Stroope said.

Michael McFarland, Ph.D., assistant professor of sociology and public health at Florida State University, was a study co-author. Researcher Jeremy Uecker, Ph.D., an assistant professor of sociology at Baylor and also a co-author, noted that “we know a great deal about sexual behavior at younger stages of the life course. This study adds to a small but growing body of research on the sexual behavior of older adults.”

Added Stroope: “As people age, they tend to be more even-keeled, which may help cut down on marital conflict and facilitate regular sexual activity into advanced age.”

The findings may surprise some in a society in which youth is the ideal and older adults are often subjected to ageism, researchers say. Despite stereotypes, the study joins other research in revealing that regular sexual activity remains a part of many older adults’ lives — even with declining health and the death of a spouse on the horizon.


Disclaimer: AAAS and EurekAlert! are not responsible for the accuracy of news releases posted to EurekAlert! by contributing institutions or for the use of any information through the EurekAlert system.

via Marital ‘long-timers’ have a ‘modest rebound’ in sexual frequency after 50 years | EurekAlert! Science News.

THURSDAY, Feb. 19, 2015 (HealthDay News) — A new study helps explain why getting too little sleep might boost diabetes risk.

Researchers say lack of sleep can lead to increased levels of substances called free fatty acids in the blood. These substances interfere with the ability of the hormone insulin to regulate blood sugar levels.

The researchers said these findings suggest that high rates of obesity and diabetes could be reduced by something as simple as having people get more sleep.

“At the population level, multiple studies have reported connections between restricted sleep, weight gain and type 2 diabetes,” said study senior author Dr. Esra Tasali in a University of Chicago news release. She is an assistant professor of medicine at the university.

The study included 19 healthy men. They were between the ages of 18 and 30. The volunteers participated in two sleep scenarios. In one, they got a full night’s sleep — about eight hours a night — for four nights. In the other, they only got slightly more than four hours of sleep a night, according to the researchers.

After a few consecutive nights of getting too little sleep, the men’s blood levels of fatty acids increased and stayed high for about five hours in the early morning hours. These levels usually peak and then drop overnight.

As long as fatty acid levels remained high, the ability of insulin to regulate blood sugar levels was impaired, according to the study.

Study lead author Josiane Broussard explained in the release, “The result was a significant loss of the benefits of insulin. This crucial hormone was less able to do its job. Insulin action in these healthy young men resembled what we typically see in early stages of diabetes.” Broussard is a former graduate student at the University of Chicago, and is now a postdoctoral research scientist at Cedars-Sinai Medical Center’s Diabetes and Obesity Research Institute in Los Angeles.

The study was published online Feb. 19 in the journal Diabetologia.

The findings add to growing evidence that lack of sleep may disrupt fat metabolism, and suggest that increasing people’s amount of sleep may reduce rates of obesity and diabetes, the researchers said.

More information

The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has more about sleep.

Small Study Links Lack of Sleep to Type 2 Diabetes Risk – US News.

Apple is being sued for allegedly poaching employees from lithium-ion battery maker A123 Systems.

The Massachusetts-based manufacturer filed a complaint earlier this month, claiming Apple hired away workers who have knowledge about A123’s battery business.

According to the filing, Cupertino snagged five employees, all of whom had signed non-disclosure agreements with A123 that prevented them from working with a competitor for one year after leaving A123. However, four A123 employees made the switch to Apple within the last month; the fifth left A123 and headed west in June 2014.

Apple also reportedly hired workers from LG, Samsung, Panasonic, Toshiba, and Johnson Controls who have “experience in A123’s battery business,” the filing said.

“The departures of the individual defendants means that A123 has lost the substantial investment it made in each of these employees, and is now forced to scramble to find replacements at substantial cost,” A123 said.

Among its many allegations, A123 accused all five defendants of having “stolen, copied, and carried away” confidential information and trade secrets, “with the intent to disclose it and convert it to their own use.”

It also claims Apple’s raid on the company has left A123 “impaired” and suffering “a severe economic impact,” for which it requests compensation.

Neither Apple nor A123 responded to a request for comment.

The suit comes amidst reports that Apple has lost employees to Tesla Motors. Elon Musk and Co. reportedly poached 150 Apple workers, but Apple has not had similar success luring workers from Tesla.

In January, meanwhile, Apple, Google, Intel, and Adobe offered a joint payment of $415 million to settle an antitrust anti-poaching case. At issue were alleged deals arranged between Adobe, Apple, Google, Intel, Intuit, LucasFilm, and Pixar, which reportedly made pacts not to have recruiters “cold call” employees or offer positions without consulting their current employer first.


Apple Sued for Poaching Employees From Battery Maker | News & Opinion |

One of the immediate changes is a raise in starting pay, with entry wages for current employees increasing to at least $9 an hour this spring. Also, all current associates will be paid at least $10 an hour by February 2016, the company said.

Wal-Mart said it was also launching a program for future associates in which they will be paid $9 or more an hour next year, receive skills-based training for six months and then be guaranteed at least $10 an hour after completion of the program.

via Wal-Mart says it’s giving 500,000 U.S. workers pay raises – LA Times.

Lake Erie is 98% frozen

The Great Lakes ice cover continues to grow as winter weather slams the country. Lake Erie had 98% ice cover on Wednesday, according to the Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory.

Lake Erie usually gets an extensive ice coverage because of how shallow the lake is, according to George Leshkevich with the Great Lakes Coastwatch. He says Erie isn’t the only lake experiencing the deep freeze.

“The Great Lakes as a whole experienced 85.4 percent ice cover as of yesterday,” Leshkevich says.

Leshkevich says 2012 and 2013 were mild years for ice cover, but 2014 was one of the worst and this year could be shaping up to be similar.

“Nobody expected 2014 to be as bad as it was, almost record breaking for ice cover and this year it’s the same thing with these very cold temperatures,” Leshkevich says

via Lake Erie is 98% frozen.

Yet a collapse in interest rates overseas and the continuing risk of financial shocks is spurring Wall Street economists at least to mull the unlikely prospect of such a scenario developing here.

The specter of negative interest rates has been sweeping across Europe for months. The European Central Bank and those of Switzerland, Sweden and Denmark have set official overnight interest rates among banks below zero in an aggressive effort to encourage borrowing, energize economic growth and stave off deflation, a spiral in which people continually expect prices to fall.

As a result, some banks in Denmark are charging customers for the privilege of keeping their money in deposit accounts there.

Economists at Goldman Sachs Friday explored the possibility that, under unexpected and unwelcome circumstances, rates in the U.S. could slide below zero as well.

via Negative interest rates: Coming to America? – Yahoo Finance.

He noted that several of the more than 1,350 potential jurors stated on their questionnaires that there was no sense in having a trial as they believed Tsarnaev was guilty. Others went even further.

“With this case, I think a public execution would be appropriate, preferably by a bomb at the finish line of the Boston Marathon,” Torruella read from a questionnaire.

via Accused bomber’s lawyers say can’t get fair trial in Boston | Reuters.

White House: Higher wages needed to make up for stagnation | The Salt Lake Tribune.

“It’s understood that kids who are bulliers at school are sometimes being bullied at home, often times by a sibling, though sometimes by a parent,” she said. “And it has a sustained impact — depression, insecurity and loss of trust and intimacy in relationships.”

via Sibling Bullying More Common Than Schoolyard Torment, Study Shows – NBC

The capital rules have not had nearly as much impact on Main Street banking operations that focus on things like mortgages and small-business lending, encouraging banks to expand in those areas while they shrink their Wall Street divisions.The new requirements on capital and a closely related metric — leverage — have come in several waves and from different sources. The international organization of central banks, based in Basel, Switzerland, put out the so-called Basel III rules in 2011, demanding that the banks reach certain minimum capital levels by 2015, though the date has since been pushed back.Many central banks, including the Fed in the United States, have said that banks in their countries must hold even higher capital levels and need to satisfy the requirements sooner than the dates required by Basel III.In the last few months, the Fed has indicated that it will also require bigger, more interconnected banks to achieve higher capital levels than smaller ones.Because these new rules are expected to hit JPMorgan Chase particularly hard, some investors and analysts said recently that the bank might need to shrink to bring itself onto a level playing field with competitors.

via New Rules Spur a Humbling Overhaul of Wall St. Banks –


The Number of U.S. Oil Rigs Continues to Tumble – Bloomberg Business.


Everything you have is nothing. It is all a spec on a metal surface. Your movies, photos, music.

Google boss warns of ‘forgotten century’ with email and photos at risk | Technology | The Guardian.

Double what it costs today!  Health Spending Projections through 2015: Changes on the horizon – Global Hospital & Healthcare Management.

“Making sure that sleep is obtained during the right time of day may be an inexpensive and easily disseminable intervention for individuals who are bothered by intrusive thoughts,” researcher Jacob Nota of Binghamton University said in a news release.

“If further findings support the relation between sleep timing and repetitive negative thinking, this could one day lead to a new avenue for treatment of individuals with internalizing disorders,” added co-researcher Meredith Coles of Binghamton University, according to a journal release. “Studying the relation between reductions in sleep duration and psychopathology has already demonstrated that focusing on sleep in the clinic also leads to reductions in symptoms of psychopathology.”

The findings are published in the journal Cognitive Therapy and Research.

Sleeping Earlier Could Treat Depression, Anxiety : Mental Health : Counsel & Heal.

Five Flu Deaths in the County This Season


Independent Discussion Guidelines

“It’s not too late for members of the public to get the flu shot, Dean said.”

Of course it’s not too late — it’s time to have a clearance sale to get rid of remaining stocks, as they can’t be used next year.

“As we enter the peak of flu season, health officials announced Friday there have been five confirmed flu-related deaths in the county this season.”

Notice the deliberately deceptive and useless term “flu-related”. According to CDC statistics, there were only 18 confirmed flu deaths in the entire US in a recent year.

According to the New England Journal of Medicine, up to 80% of the transnational corporations producing these products are criminal organizations [… ], and have been repeatedly found guilty of felony crimes, most related to falsifying studies and suppressing safety information about their products.

Despite numerous studies confirming that these hazardous toxic cocktails do not prevent viral transmission, local public health departments, such as the Santa Barbara County Public Health Department, and allopathic medical establishments, such as Sansum Clinic, operate as these transnational corporations’ marketing departments, ignoring sound medical science in order to aggressively promote these nearly useless but dangerous products, adopting the corporate-engineered propaganda of the vaccine industry and its for-profit junk science.

Why? Perhaps just follow the money.

Annual profits of the top ten transnational pharmaceutical corporations are approximately $36 billion, more than the profits for ALL the remaining 490 Fortune 500 companies. So there’s an enormous amount of funds available to “educate” and influence local public health departments and allopathic medical establishments.

According to the British Medical Journal [… ] the transnational pharmaceutical industry has “incentivized” doctors, academics, journals, professional and patient organizations, university departments, journalists, regulators, and politicians.

Vaccine ingredients can include neurotoxins, immunotoxins, mutating cancer viruses, and heavy metals. Injected directly into the bloodstream, this toxic cocktail suppresses the immune system, likely increasing, rather than decreasing, the chances of getting the flu.

This article…

‘5 Reasons Why I’ll Never Get a Flu Shot’…

…lists 18 ingredients of a typical flu shot with information about the potential dangers of these toxins, and provides documentation for the statement:

“In actuality, the flu shot prevents the flu in only 1.5 out of 100 adults.”

via Five Flu Deaths in the County This Season.

Investment Tips For The 99% – Business Insider.

25 Most Low-Maintenance Dog Breeds

25 Most Low-Maintenance Dog Breeds.

Lewy Who? | Lewy Body Dementia Association.

Foods That Can Help You Sleep

Well sex can help you sleep as well….

Foods That Can Help You Sleep – AARP.

NOT even a handjob!  Wow the sex bots will take over……

Future of sex: No touching involved – CNN Video.


One state at a time….  “High profile government corruption persists in Connecticut,” she said, “So the time is opportune for us to put together a top notch team.”

I know… pay public officials like we do CEO’s but fire them just as often (every 2 years)  Then have it be the death penalty for taking a bribe, or favoring a campaign contributor.

via U.S. Forms New Team To Fight “Persistent,” “High-Profile” Corruption In Connecticut – Hartford Courant.

This chart shows that the people are just sick of getting fucked by the crooks.

Fuck you, you fucking fucks! It’s all phoney money on paper that some hedge fund can wipe out, or some bank can wipe out, at any time.  It fucking means nothing.  The next big rug pulling is about to happen.

2 reasons why investors miss stock rallies | About J.P. Morgan Funds.

Yep what else can this learn from videos.  This is the end of marriage.

Yep a bot that learns and remembers the right grip…


Chef Bot? Robot Learns Cooking from YouTube Videos.

A 38-year-old Southern California woman has been charged with having sex with her daughter’s teenage ex-boyfriend, police said.

Escondido police arrested Fereshta Angel Williams of Deer Springs on charges of having sex with a minor more than three years younger, two counts of oral copulation of a minor and one count of trying to dissuade a witness.

After investigating her for several weeks, police arrested Williams on Jan. 5 at the 24-Hour Fitness at 200 La Terraza Blvd.

Police said Williams’ relationship with the teen, who was 16 years old at the time, lasted between two and three months; they declined to release how they were alerted to the relationship.

via Mom Had Sex With Teen Daughter’s Ex: PD | NBC 7 San Diego.

One punch death again

Oceanside Bouncer Followed Bar Patron Outside Before Death: DA | NBC 7 San Diego.

209 Seconds That Will Make You Question Your Entire Existence – Buzzfeed – The Scene.